Psychology

On the line next to each vignette, rate the following behaviors according to the Abnormal Psychology scale below:

1 = Basically O.K. Psychotherapy is not necessary. 2 = Mild disturbance. Psychotherapy should be considered. 3 = Significant disturbance. Psychotherapy is definitely required. 4 = Severe disturbance. Hospitalize!

Bob is a very intelligent, 25 year old member of a religious organization that is based on Buddhism. Bob’s working for this organization caused considerable conflict between him and his parents, who are devout Catholics. Recently Bob experiences acute spells of nausea and fatigue that prevent him from working and which have forced him to return home to live with his parents. Various medical tests are being conducted, but as yet no physical causes of his problems have been found. __________________________________

Jim was vice president of the freshman class at a local college and played on the school’s football team. Later that year he dropped out of these activities and gradually became more and more withdrawn from friends and family. Neglecting to shave and shower, he began to look dirty and unhealthy. He spent most of his time alone in his room and sometimes complained to his parents that he heard voices in the curtains and in the closet. In his sophomore year he dropped out of school entirely. With increasing anxiety and agitation, he began to worry that the “Nazis” were plotting to kill his family and kidnap him. _____________________________________

Mary is a 30 year old musician who is very dedicated and successful in her work as a teacher in a local high school and as a part-time member of local musical groups. Since her marriage five years ago, which ended in divorce after six months, she has dated very few men. She often worries that her time is “running out” for establishing a good relationship with a man, getting married, and raising a family. Her friends tell her that she gets way too anxious around men, and that she needs to relax a little in general. _________________________________________

Larry, a homosexual who has lived for three years with a man he met in graduate school, works as a psychologist in a large hospital. Although competent in his work, he often feels strained by the pressures of his demanding position. An added source of tension on the job is his not being able to confide in all his co-workers about his private life. Most of his leisure activities are with good friends who belong to the gay subculture. ________________________________________

II. Circle the correct answer for every Question below, then answer the rationalization below each question in your own words, from your own schemata:

1. John believes that all women are overly emotional, all Asian-Americans are good at math, and all

welfare clients are lazy. These are examples of

a. prejudice. c. stereotypes.

b. discrimination. d. social categorization.

In one robust paragraph, discuss one possible erroneous evaluation that could result from this social phenomenon, and one consequence:

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2. Jenny has been experiencing persistent sadness, despair, guilt, hopelessness,

and lack of interest in daily activities for the past few months, offset by a brief period of hyperactivity, irritability, increased appetite, and sleeplessness .

What disorder is Jenny experiencing? Briefly describe one treatment option for this disorder and one repercussion of the disorder if not treated properly:

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3. Which of the following would you LEAST likely observe in a person who

is manic?

a. hyperactivity c. rapid speech

b. low self-esteem d. impulsive behavior

In your own words, describe how a Manic person might appear during an episode of Mania. Paint a picture for me with your words to describe what you see:

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4. Which of the following took place in class during the past couple of weeks?

a. We acted out psychological disorders.

b. We had a guest speaker who discussed the controversies over diagnosing various psychological disorders.

c. We viewed movie clips or listened to songs depicting characters with various psychological disorders.

d. All of the above

e. None of the above

How would you have most effectively learned about Psychology this semester? Briefly discuss a few ideas for presenting these concepts that would have been more fun and effective than the method used:

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MATCH each of the following sentences with the TERMS below that best depict them.

5. Someone almost crashed into Jane on the highway and then sped quickly past them. Jane decided the driver of the car behaved that way because “he’s a jerk who thinks he owns the road!”

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6. Garrett told his parents that he earned an A- on his psychology final exam because he studied very hard, but that he got a D on his biology final exam because the teacher was terrible.

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7. Anthony does not like himself very well, which sometimes causes him to make bad choices.

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a. internal attribution for someone else’s behavior

b. self-serving bias

c. low self-esteem

8. When college students are assigned to complete a group project, some members exhibit a decrease

in effort and performance. This is called

a. social loafing. c. social slacking.

b. deindividuation. d. groupthink.

What do you suggest the professor do to assist in eliminating this social phenomenon during group work?

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9. The effects of shifting time zones or doing shift work include all of the following EXCEPT

a. hallucinations. d. increased risk of mistakes.

b. decreased productivity. e. impaired attention & concentration.

c. irritability.

You eliminated one answer. What would it take to cause the thing you eliminated to occur? Explain in your own words in one small paragraph: _____________________________________________________________________________________

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10. REM sleep may be characterized by what behaviors and phenomena?:

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In which stages do each of these phenomenon occur?

Decreased adrenaline _____________________________________________________________________________________

Decreased brain activity _____________________________________________________________________________________

Sleepwalking _____________________________________________________________________________________

More frequent and vivid dreams

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Slow and regular heart rate

How long does it take to get caught up after being sleep deprived? Explain in your own words: _____________________________________________________________________________________

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11. Sleepwalking is most likely to occur during ________ sleep.

a. REM d. stage 3

b. stage 1 e. stage 4

c. stage 2

Night terrors are most likely to occur during ________ sleep.

a. REM d. stage 3

b. stage 1 e. stage 4

c. stage 2

What is sleepwalking? What phenomenon is occurring?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What are night terrors? What phenomenon is occurring?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12. Individuals who experience periods of time during the night when their breathing stops may be diagnosed with

a. narcolepsy. c. insomnia.

b. sleep apnea. d. somniloquy.

What is the treatment for this? Is it curable? Explain these answers in your own words: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

13. According to Freud, dreams are

a. continuations of the mental processes occurring when the person falls asleep.

b. an expression of our unconscious desires and needs.

c. not very meaningful.

d. combinations of random neural signals.

What do YOU think dreams are? Explain in your own words: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

14. The three stages of memory (not memory storage) in sequence are:

a. short-term memory, long-term memory, and retrieval.

b. encoding, storage, and retrieval.

c. encoding, retrieval, and forgetting.

d. sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Explain each stage in your own words:

A)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

B)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

C)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

15. Lacey can remember how to ride a bike and how to drive a car. These are examples of

a. procedural memory. c. episodic memory.

b. implicit memory. d. semantic memory.

Why can’t Lacey remember the information on her vocabulary test last week? Tell me in your own words: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

16. Ramone watched an episode of American Idol and saw 12 singers perform. Later his wife asked about the performers, and he could only remember the last 3 singers who performed. This is an example of

a. a flashbulb memory. c. the primacy effect.

b. episodic memory. d. the recency effect.

What if he had remembered one of the earlier singers because she reminded him of an old girlfriend? What kind of memory would that have been? Explain: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

17. Alexander went to the phone to call his parents and accidentally dialed their old number instead of their new number. This is an example of

a. the primacy effect. c. proactive interference.

b. the recency effect. d. retroactive interference.

He remembered the number with area code easily in three sections of three/three/four numbers. What is this process of remembering called? Give me another example of when you use this process? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

18. When students answer multiple choice exams, the instructor is using which measure of retrieval?

a. recall b. recognition c. relearning d. None of the above

This exam type does not involve much higher order or critical thinking. What type of exam questioning would require a student to think more and draw from their own schemata? Explain: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

19. Many people can recall vivid details about what we were doing and who we were with when we heard about the terrorist attacks on 9/11. This is an example of

a. imagery. c. the primacy effect.

b. state-dependent learning. d. flashbulb memories.

You may have been too young to remember 9/11. Do you have a very vivid memory from Hurricane Rita? What is it? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

20. In Pavlov’s study of classical conditioning, the dog’s salivation to the bell was the

a. unconditioned stimulus. c. unconditioned response.

b. conditioned stimulus. d. conditioned response.

What would the dog’s initial salivation to the meat be considered? ____________________________________

What would the initial presentation of the meat powder be considered? ________________________________

What about the presentation of the bell? _________________________________________________________

21. Your cat comes running when she hears the can opener because the sound of the can opener has been paired with “dinner time” for several months. The sound of the can opener is a(n)

a. unconditioned stimulus. c. unconditioned response.

b. conditioned stimulus. d. conditioned response.

What would the cat’s running to the sound of the can opener be considered? ___________________________

What would dinner time without the can opener normally be considered? ______________________________

22. The weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented alone is a process called

a. generalization. c. spontaneous recovery.

b. discrimination. d. extinction.

Give me an example of this phenomenon in “real life.” (Not our fishing example from class):

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23. After “Little Albert” was conditioned to fear a white rat, he later became afraid of a stuffed animal and other white, furry things. This is called

a. generalization. c. spontaneous recovery.

b. discrimination. d. extinction.

Give me an example of this phenomenon in “real life.”:

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24. Common examples of classical conditioning in our everyday lives include all of the following EXCEPT

a. drug abuse and addiction.

b. taste aversion (after food poisoning).

c. fears and phobias.

d. rewards and punishments.

Why did you eliminate the answer you chose? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

25. When Johnny brought home bad grades on his report card, his mother scolded him and told him he had to do extra chores for two weeks. This is an example of

a. positive reinforcement. c. positive punishment.

b. negative reinforcement. d. negative punishment.

Explain why you answered positive or negative, and explain why you answered reinforcement or punishment: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

26. When Johnny helped his grandmother clean out her attic and mow her yard, his parents removed his extra chores. This is an example of

a. positive reinforcement. c. positive punishment.

b. negative reinforcement. d. negative punishment.

Explain why you answered positive or negative, and explain why you answered reinforcement or punishment: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

28. This question is an extension of our in-class lessons for which we lacked time to cover.

The DSM-5 lists ten specific personality disorders: 

paranoidschizoidschizotypalantisocialborderlinehistrionicnarcissisticavoidantdependent and 

obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

Choose one of the personality disorders in this list and research it briefly. Provide a robust narrative paragraph describing the personality disorder you have chosen; who is affected most significantly by the disorder – men or women; causes (genetic and otherwise); treatments; and which disorders show significantly high comorbidity with the personality disorder you have chosen; etc…

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Psychotherapy Exercises

Psychotherapy, also known as “talk therapy,” is when a person speaks with a trained therapist in a safe and confidential environment to explore and understand feelings and behaviors and gain coping skills; or to achieve “catharsis” (the process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, emotions repressed in the subconscious.)

Psychotherapy began with the practice of psychoanalysis, the “talking cure” developed by Sigmund Freud. Many other theorists helped to develop the general orientation now called psychodynamic therapy, the umbrella under which the various therapies reside that are based on Freud’s essential principle of making the unconscious conscious.

During individual talk therapy sessions, the conversation is often led by the therapist and can touch on topics such as past or current problems, experiences, thoughts, feelings or relationships experienced by the person while the therapist helps make connections and provide insight.

Studies have found individual psychotherapy to be effective at improving symptoms in a wide array of mental illnesses, making it both a popular and versatile treatment. Best practice for treating many mental health conditions includes a combination of medication and therapy.

Therapists offer many different types of psychotherapy. Some people respond better to one type of therapy than another, so a psychotherapist will take things like the nature of the problem being treated and the person’s personality into account when determining which treatment will be most effective. (Psychology Today)

Below are several activities for you to complete that are based on various types of psychotherapy. Conduct the activities on yourself hereby empathizing with the client suffering from mental disorder.

I. The Shadow Exercise

“Think of someone you know whom you don’t like very much. Maybe you even hate this person. Write a description of that person here. Write down what it is about this individual’s personality that you don’t like. Be as specific as you can.” When you are finished writing, draw a box around what you have written – and at the top of the box write ” MY SHADOW”

“What you have written down is some hidden part of yourself – some part that you have suppressed or hidden. It is what Carl Jung would call your SHADOW. Maybe it’s a part of you that you fear, can’t accept, or hate for some reason. Maybe it’s a part of you that needs to be expressed or developed in some way. Maybe you even secretly wish you could be something like that person whom you hate.”

You may immediately see the connection; you may immediately reject the idea. Do you have friends or a romantic partner who fits the description of the “hated” person? You may be surprised to see that this is indeed the case. We often project suppressed parts of ourselves onto others, and this exercise helps us to understand why we sometimes choose these “hated” people for our close relationships. Draw your box here: In one brief paragraph describe how this exercise made you feel:

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II. image1.jpg Childhood MemoriesWrite down one or two early childhood memories. Create a title for each memory, as if what you wrote is a newspaper story and you are creating a pithy headline that captures its essence. Consider these questions about the dynamics and significance of your childhood memories:· Does the memory reveal important themes in one’s past as well as present life? – for example, the nature of one’s relationships with significant others, predominant issues, conflicts, emotions, attitudes, etc. The title of the story often helps clarify this.· Does the memory illustrate a particular developmental need, such as for autonomy, mirroring, soothing, self-esteem, and love?· Is the memory accurate? Are the details of the memory meaningful? Do they come from other memories? Is this memory really a composite of several memories (what Freud would call a “screen memory”)?· How would significant others remember the event? If there are differences than how you remember it, what is the meaning of those differences? Why do people remember the same event differently? What does it say about them?· Are our memories accurate depictions of reality, or have we subjectively “created” the past. Is there really a “reality” at all?

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