Please used the textbook: reading the American past volume 1:to 1877 by Micheal Johnson
1. “Virginian Luxuries” by unknown artist (ca. 1800)
2. Alexis de Tocqueville Describes the Three Races in the United States (1835)
3. Declaration of Sentiments (1848)
4. “The Discord” by F. Heppenheimer (1855)
5. Abraham Lincoln’s speech in Peoria, Illinois (October 16, 1854)
6. Abraham Lincoln’s Fourth Debate with Stephen Douglas (September 18, 1858)
7. The Reconstruction Amendments (13th, 14th, and 15th)

Document 1: Virginian Luxuries (ca. 1800 – artist unknown)
Link to the picture- https://dcccd.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-4733765-dt-content-rid-15426285_1/xid-15426285_1
Document 2: Alexis de Toqueville Describes the Three Races in the United States (1835)
In a landmark examination of the American society and culture, Alexis de Toqueville’s Democracy in America offered a unique outsiders perspective on liberty and its limitations amongst the inhabitants of the United States, particularly in the relations of three races “naturally distinct…and hostile to one another.”
For this document, please read DOCUMENT 11-3 in Reading the American Past: Selected Historical Documents, Volume 1: To 1877 (pages 216-219)

Document 3: Declaration of Sentiments (1848)
Produced at the first women’s rights convention in the United States in Seneca Falls, NY, the “Declaration of Sentiments” was adopted to reflect the fundamental issues shaping and constraining women’s liberties in the mid-19thcentury.
For this document, please read DOCUMENT 12-4 in Reading the American Past: Selected Historical Documents, Volume 1: To 1877 (pages 239-242)

Link to the picture- https://dcccd.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-4733765-dt-content-rid-15426286_1/xid-15426286_1

Please read below for the dialogue being spoken in this political cartoon:
Man on far left – “Fight courageous for sovereign authority neighbor, or your wife will do to you as mine has done to me – She’ll pull your hair off your head and compel you to wear a Wig!”
Man in center – “Rather die! than let my wife have my pants. A man ought always to be the ruler!”
Male child on left – “Oh Mamma please leave my Papa his Pants!”
Woman in center – “Sam’y help me! Woman is born to rule and not to obey these contemptible creature called men!”
Woman on far right – “Bravo Sarah! Stick to them, it is only us, which ought to rule and to whom the pants fit the best.”
Female child in center – “Oh Pa! let go, be gallant or you’ll tear ‘em.”

Document 5: portion of Lincoln’s Peoria Speech, October 16, 1854
In speaking out against the Kansas-Nebraska Act and resurrecting his political career, following a two-year term in the House of Representatives and a subsequent return to his law practice, Abraham Lincoln offered some early public insights into his feelings towards slavery:
…. This declared indifference, but as I must think, covert real zeal for the spread of slavery, I can not but hate. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world—enables the enemies of free institutions, with plausibility, to taunt us as hypocrites—causes the real friends of freedom to doubt our sincerity, and especially because it forces so many really good men amongst ourselves into an open war with the very fundamental principles of civil liberty—criticising the Declaration of Independence, and insisting that there is no right principle of action but self-interest.
Before proceeding, let me say I think I have no prejudice against the Southern people. They are just what we would be in their situation. If slavery did not now exist amongst them, they would not introduce it. If it did now exist amongst us, we should not instantly give it up. This I believe of the masses north and south. Doubtless there are individuals, on both sides, who would not hold slaves under any circumstances; and others who would gladly introduce slavery anew, if it were out of existence. We know that some southern men do free their slaves, go north, and become tip-top abolitionists; while some northern ones go south, and become most cruel slave-masters.
When southern people tell us they are no more responsible for the origin of slavery, than we; I acknowledge the fact. When it is said that the institution exists; and that it is very difficult to get rid of it, in any satisfactory way, I can understand and appreciate the saying. I surely will not blame them for not doing what I should not know how to do myself. If all earthly power were given me, I should not know what to do, as to the existing institution. My first impulse would be to free all the slaves, and send them to Liberia,—to their own native land. But a moment’s reflection would convince me, that whatever of high hope, (as I think there is) there may be in this, in the long run, its sudden execution is impossible. If they were all landed there in a day, they would all perish in the next ten days; and there are not surplus shipping and surplus money enough in the world to carry them there in many times ten days. What then?
Free them all, and keep them among us as underlings? Is it quite certain that this betters their condition? I think I would not hold one in slavery, at any rate; yet the point is not clear enough for me to denounce people upon. What next? Free them, and make them politically and socially, our equals? My own feelings will not admit of this; and if mine would, we well know that those of the great mass of white people will not. Whether this feeling accords with justice and sound judgment, is not the sole question, if indeed, it is any part of it. A universal feeling, whether well or ill-founded, can not be safely disregarded. We can not, then, make them equals. It does seem to me that systems of gradual emancipation might be adopted; but for their tardiness in this, I will not undertake to judge our brethren of the south.
When they remind us of their constitutional rights, I acknowledge them, not grudgingly, but fully, and fairly; and I would give them any legislation for the reclaiming of their fugitives, which should not, in its stringency, be more likely to carry a free man into slavery, than our ordinary criminal laws are to hang an innocent one.
Document 6: portion of Lincoln’s Fourth Debate with Stephen Douglas, September 18, 1858
In campaigning for the Senate (and really on behalf of their respective party’s candidates for the state legislature which would actually select the Senator), Lincoln engaged Stephen Douglas in a series of seven debates generally considered some of the most important in American History.
During the early debates, the Democrat candidate Douglas tried to paint a portrait of Lincoln and the Republican Party as one of abolitionists who believed the races were equal. As he opened the Fourth Debate in which a reported 12,000 people were in attendance, Lincoln answered these charges:
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: It will be very difficult for an audience so large as this to hear distinctly what a speaker says, and consequently it is important that as profound silence be preserved as possible.
While I was at the hotel to-day, an elderly gentleman called upon me to know whether I was really in favor of producing a perfect equality between the negroes and white people. While I had not proposed to myself on this occasion to say much on that subject, yet as the question was asked me I thought I would occupy perhaps five minutes in saying something in regard to it. I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races, – that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality. And inasmuch as they cannot so live, while they do remain together there must be the position of superior and inferior, and I as much as any other man am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the white race. I say upon this occasion I do not perceive that because the white man is to have the superior position the negro should be denied every thing. I do not understand that because I do not want a negro woman for a slave I must necessarily want her for a wife. My understanding is that I can just let her alone. I am now in my fiftieth year, and I certainly never have had a black woman for either a slave or a wife. So it seems to me quite possible for us to get along without making either slaves or wives of negroes. I will add to this that I have never seen, to my knowledge, a man, woman or child who was in favor of producing a perfect equality, social and political, between negroes and white men. . . . I will add one further word, which is this: that I do not understand that there is any place where an alteration of the social and political relations of the negro and the white man can be made except in the State Legislature-not in the Congress of the United States-and as I do not really apprehend the approach of any such thing myself . . .

Document 7: Reconstruction Amendments (13th, 14th, and 15th)
For these documents, please read the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments found in the Appendix of your textbook The American Promise: A History of the United States, Volume 1: To 1877 (pages A-20 – A-21)

Based upon your reading of these selected primary documents and incorporating such secondary sources as your textbook and lecture notes, I would like you to answer the following 4 Questions. Please provide specific examples from these documents that support your arguments.
Questions to be answer in the eassy. Each question is worth 25 points. Please be very sure to answer all parts of each question coherently so I can earn full points.

1) What relationships of power are featured in “Virginian Luxuries” (Document 1)? How are unequal power relationships reflected in Toqueville’s distinctions between the three races (Document 2)? What future does Toqueville predict for these groups of people and why? Based upon your own knowledge, how accurate do you believe Toqueville’s observations and predictions were?

2) What relationships of power are featured in “The Discord” (Document 3)? How does the Declaration of Sentiments (Document 4) reveal the nature of gender relationships in nineteenth century America? Based upon your knowledge of this time period, do you agree with these sentiments, why or why not?

3) What are Abraham Lincoln’s views on the institution of slavery and notion of racial equality (Documents 5 and 6)? Because these speeches were made on the “campaign trail,” how much do you believe these statements reflect Lincoln’s real thoughts or do you believe he is “playing politics?”

4) Based upon your knowledge of the Civil War and reading of the Reconstruction Amendments (Document 7), in what specific ways were the questions and crises of liberty and unequal power relationships contained in these various documents resolved or exacerbated by the 1870s?
Guidelines for question responses:
1. Please restate the question in its entire format. You may cut and paste the question or retype it.
2. Each response shall be written in MLA format, Times New Roman, 12 point font, and 1” margins.
3. Each response shall be double spaced.
4. Each response shall have examples from the documents to support your arguments. You may use other documents, but the ones specifically mentioned in the exam MUST be utilized. No credit will be given otherwise to a response that does not specifically mention the primary source.
5. There is a minimum length for each response. Each response should be at least one page long.
Please note this is double spaced.
Please note this does NOT include the question restated. In essence, this means that your response will be closer to 1 ½ pages with the question restated in its entirety.





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