Please answer two of the following questions. To strengthen your points, cite particular studies. As a rough guide,
consider between 4-6 pages per response. Please do not write more than you need to.
1. What was Robert White’s (1959) major contribution to the study of motivation? Describe his approach and evidence for
his thesis. Next, illustrate how his approach relates to at least two other theories we have discussed so far in the
course. How are these theories influenced by White’s ideas? How do they differ?
2. Several of the suspects in the “Toronto 18” terror plot were middle-class or even well-to-do Muslim Canadians who
decided join a jihadist group and plotted to blow up numerous landmark buildings in Toronto and Ottawa. Contrast how
Baumeister & Leary’s Need to Belong theory and Brewer et al.’s Optimal Distinctiveness theory might each account for this
phenomenon. Cite particular studies to support your arguments.
3. Consider a university student who is trying to get the most out of her university experience (i.e. by learning a lot
and getting good grades). What lessons could she derive from Gollwitzer’s deliberative/implemental idea and from
Vallacher & Wegner’s action identification idea? Where might the advice from both theories be similar, and where might
the advice diverge?
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