Ashford Week 5 Application of Deontology Theory on Integrity of Abortion Paper This course has three written assignments that build upon one another and ar

Ashford Week 5 Application of Deontology Theory on Integrity of Abortion Paper This course has three written assignments that build upon one another and are designed to take you step-by-step through a process of writing a paper that identifies an ethical question, examines the context, issues, and arguments surrounding the question, and attempts to defend an answer to that question using strong moral reasoning.

In the Week 1 assignment, “Ethical Question,” you chose an ethical question, provided an introduction, a position statement and supporting reason, and an opposing position statement and supporting reason.

In the Week 3 assignment, “Applying an Ethical Theory,” you explained utilitarianism, deontology, or virtue ethics, including its core moral principle or ideal, and applied that theory to the topic by demonstrating how its principles would support a particular position on your ethical question.

In this final written assignment, you will combine what you have done in these two exercises by examining an ethical issue and defending your own position on an ethical question regarding that issue.

This final written assignment should be written in essay form with the following clearly labeled sections:

Ethical Argument
Explanation and Defense
Objection and Response

The paper should be between 1,300 and 1,500 words, utilize three scholarly resources, and include a title page and reference page.

Part 1: Introduction

In this section of the paper, you will begin with your ethical question, introduce the topic and paper, and close with a thesis statement.

The ethical question may be the same as your Week 3 written assignment (“Applying an Ethical Theory”) or a revised version of it.
The introduction should be revised in a way that reflects your additional thinking on the issue and question.
End this section with a thesis statement that states your position on the issue (the answer to the ethical question you believe is strongest) and provides a brief summary of the main ideas you will be presenting in the paper. Please see the assignment guidance for examples of thesis statements.

Place the introduction under the Part 1: Introduction heading.

Part 2: Ethical Argument

In this section of the paper, you will present the strongest argument you can in support of the position you have stated in your introduction.

This will be similar to the “supporting reasons” you offered in the first assignment; however, this argument should reflect your research into the key ethical issues that need to be identified and addressed, the arguments on different sides of this problem, and the theories of moral reasoning we have studied in the class (you will discuss the specific details and implications of the moral theories in the next two sections).
You can think of this as a summary of the main argument you would give if you were an attorney trying to convince a jury of your position.

Place this information under the Part 2: Ethical Argument heading.

Part 3: Explanation and Defense

In this section, you will explain and defend your argument by drawing on the moral theory that aligns most closely with the argument you presented in Part 2. This may be the same theory you discussed in your second assignment, but it may also be a different theory.

You must first explain the theory in general terms similar to how you explained a theory in your second assignment, including a brief account of the historical background of the theory and the philosopher(s) associated with it and general overview of the core moral ideal or principle of the theory, including the way it guides and constrains moral reasoning.
You should then clearly show how your argument represents an application of that form of moral reasoning.
In other words, if the argument you present in Part 2 is utilitarian, deontological, or virtue-based (teleological), you will want to explain utilitarianism, deontology, or virtue ethics in general terms, then explain how your argument from Part 2 reflects or draws upon the core principles and values of that theory. Please refer to the Week 3 assignment instructions for directions on how to explain and apply the moral theory.

Place this section under the Part 3: Explanation and Defense heading.

Part 4: Objection and Response

In this section of the paper, you will present the strongest objection you can to your argument, and briefly defend that objection by appealing to a different ethical theory than the one you focused on in Part 3.

Briefly explain the core moral ideal or principle of the theory and how that could be the basis of an objection to your argument. For instance, if you explained and defended your own argument by applying the principles of virtue ethics, you could raise an objection from the perspective of utilitarianism by briefly explaining the core utilitarian principle and how applying that principle could lead someone to a different conclusion than the one you are defending.
Next, you should respond to the objection by explaining why it is not strong enough to undermine the main argument in defense of your position.
See the assignment guidance for suggestions on how to effectively respond to the objection.

Place this section under the Part 4: Objection and Response heading.

Part 5: Conclusion

In this section of the paper, provide a summary of what you have done in the paper by briefly describing what you accomplished in each of the above sections.

Place this section under the Part 5: Conclusion heading.

Resource Requirement

You must use at least three scholarly resources, only one of which may be the textbook. In other words, you must use at least two scholarly resources in addition to the textbook.

Acceptable ways of using a source include providing a quotation, summary, or paraphrase; merely providing a citation, especially when it is unclear how or where the text supports your claim, is not sufficient.

If you need help with finding additional resources or are unsure about whether a particular resource will count toward the requirement, please contact your instructor.

For sources to count toward the resources requirement, they must be cited within the text of your paper and on the reference page. Sources that are listed on the references page but not cited within the paper do not count toward fulfilling the resources requirement.

In your paper,

Introduce the topic and paper.
Provide a thesis statement.
Present an argument in support of the position.
Defend the argument by explaining and applying the ethical theory that most closely aligns with the argument.
Present an objection to the argument by appealing to a different ethical theory.
Respond to the objection.
Provide a conclusion that describes what was accomplished in each of the sections of the paper.

The Ethical Reasoning Final Paper

Must be 1,300 to 1,500 words in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.)resource.
Must include a separate title page with the following:
Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).

Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.
Must use at least two scholarly sources in addition to the course text.
The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.
Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) guide.
(Links to an external site.)Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications. Running head: INTEGRITY OF ABORTION
Integrity of Abortion
Institution Affiliation
Course Name
Students Name
Part 1: Ethical Question
Is there integrity of abortion in the 21st Century regarding culture, religion, and belief?
Part 2: Introduction
Abortion has been viewed in the 21st Century as a gynecologist problem which can be
examined and treated without fear. Abortion in historical culture, religion, and belief was
unethical and even to date is still viewed as murder in most of the customs and religions
across the globe. Conferring to Thames 2018, abortion has been considered in the cultural
and religious worlds as mocking and unethical in the society. It makes this ethical question
relevant and essential because it explains why society disregards abortion due to the killing
mechanism it presents. The uncertainty that abortion presents to the public and private
morality sphere makes this an ethical question that needs profound analysis.
Many countries have legalized abortion when it poses a danger to the fetus poses a
threat to the mother. Although this statute has been altered to an extent, women proscribe
abortion on their terms, which is not moral reasoning. The readings of abortion in chapter six
state that, abortion in the 21st Century has been made an ethical practice, yet it remains
immoral. The reason being, it goes against the rights of life of the fetus and the Biblical
values commanded by God. Tardiff (2015), argues that the theory of American political
pluralism tries to provide limelight on abortion certainty in the society but still fails. Hence,
bringing up the ethical question on abortion and its integrity in the community.
Politics has been influential in the approval of abortion as a law in developed countries
like in the US. Statistical research demonstrated that from the year 2005, 95% of abortions
carried out in the US were done by unmarried women. It shows that abortion is highly
practiced due to immorality in society and used as a mechanism of covering it. Therefore, the
integrity of abortion remains questionable in the society regarding the culture, belief system,
and religion; hence, the paper will review this as an ethical question and give a profound
Part 3: Position Statement
There is no integrity of abortion regarding culture, religion, and beliefs in society, and
it should be highly disregarded since it denies the right to life to the fetus.
Part 4: Reasons in Support of My Position
The first reason for supporting this statement is ‘the right to life,’ and the
Commandments of God presented in the bible. These values are the primary reason for
questioning the integrity of abortion. Regarding the research done by Tardiff (2015),
unmarried women opt to abort kids due to unprotected sex when they aren’t ready for
marriage. Such instances make abortion unethical and questionable. The 21st-century medical
rights have made the belief system, and religion to lose meaning because it regards abortion
as sin since it involves killing the fetus.
The Kantian categorical imperative proves that people are subjected to use rational
thinking to embrace morality in society. The moral judgment of approving the abortion law is
morally irrelevant since the most beneficial people are unmarried women practicing
unprotected sex. Furthermore, abortion presents a danger to the health of a woman due to the
21st unprofessional and use of abortion drugs. The rise of such drugs has also made the
health conditions of women practicing abortion be at prone to chronic illnesses such as
cancer. Thus, making the integrity of tentative abortion dwelling on culture, religion, and
belief inhumane.
Lastly, Thames (2018), states that due to the right to live in society, this law should
outperform abortion, which should be disregarded. Although it can be considered when the
life of a mother is in danger, life is a precious gift that is God-given. Therefore, it should be
highly respected and protected due to the morality it offers to society.
Part 5: Opposing Position Statement
The 21st Century has presented citizens with rights that are lawful and legal, hence
making the integrity of abortion sometimes certain.
Part 6: Reasons in Favor of the Opposing Position
Civilization has taken the world into another account whereby human rights are
considered in everything. Leading countries such as the US have led the way by initiating the
abortion law since 1972, making other countries to learn and adopt them. The main reason
has been based on the health of the mother rather than the fetus. The women’s rights were
established; hence they have the right to determine procreation when they are ready. Rape has
also surfaced being one of the significant factors of abortion, which seems right and ethical in
religious and cultural society. Tardiff (2015), alternatively, argues that women have to give at
least three reasons for an elective abortion regarding the responsibilities, health, and current
status of the mother. Lastly, the pro-abortion supporters stand on the claim that humans have
moral rights; hence, the exclusion of the fetus. These are the solid reasons that the supporters
of abortion dwell on to try and make abortion integral in society.
The anti-abortion supporter’s views and claims on abortion are moral and ethical both
in religion and culture. The moral stewardship of society should influence the moral
reasoning of anti-abortion supporters. The life of the fetus should matter as keeping the moral
values of the community where life matters most. Therefore, regarding culture, religion, and
belief, the integrity of abortion goes against all the moral values of the society thus should be
Tardiff, R., (2015). Stewardship Challenges Abortion: A Proposed Means To Mitigate
Abortion’s Social Divisiveness. Journal of Medical Ethics.
Thames, B., (2018). How Should One Live: An Introduction to Ethics and Moral Reasoning.
Bridgepoint Education, San Diego, US.
Application of Deontology Theory on the Integrity of Abortion
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted
Ethical Question
Is it right to complete abortion for an unwanted pregnancy resulting from rape where neither the
mother nor the fetus is in danger?
Abortion in the 21st century can be examined in different dimensions on the concepts of
outcomes and regarding the ethical considerations of the conditions the pregnancy occurred.
Abortion in different cultures and regions attracts different views irrespective of the conditions it
happens, but the limelight conclusion is that it is immoral. As stated by Thames (2018), abortion
is considered as mocking because besides its practices of terminating fetes life; it presents more
harm to society. The question of whether it is right to conduct an abortion resulting from rape
where the mother nor the fetus is at risk requires profound analysis. Considering specific rules,
including reproductive health and the impacts of sexual violence, is necessary. There is also logic
in finding the mother’s consent in bearing the child to term. Despite many countries legalizing
abortion, it is still under integrity scrutiny on executing an abortion resulting from rape. This is
because regardless of the conditions, completion of the abortion terminates a life.
Reproductive health concerns and sexual violence issues influence whether it is right or
wrong to complete an abortion that resulted from rape. This is because the time variable is
considered to determine the probable consequences that may arise. Pregnancy from rape requires
the subject to report to the police and have legal permission before the second trimester of the
pregnancy. The law denies legislation on such pregnancy beyond the first trimester. For example,
the Supreme Court in India denied legislation of abortion on twenty-six weeks pregnancy
(Nimbalkar, and Patel, 2019). The above example shows that abortion is perceived as an ethical
practice in the twenty-first century, yet it’s still immoral regardless of the conditions that occurred
(Thames, 2018). This brings more limelight on the need to explore the ethical questions that seek
to examine the integrity of completing an abortion resulting from rape when the mother and fetus
aren’t at risk.
Explanation of Deontology Ethical Theory
Deontology theory can be traced back over three millennia. The most recent version of
deontology theory towers in the eightieth century to philosopher Immanuel. The approach also
insists that the right doesn’t necessarily imply a maximization of good. Further, the theory holds
that each individual is responsible for the moral value of their actions regardless of the prevailing
conditions. In this case, the approach emphasizes that individuals form goals in all aspects of life,
and the goals determine the intensions. The theory puts more emphasis on intentions since they
determine the course of action. The moral principle in this theory is significantly based on the aims
one has regarding activities (Thames, 2018). Objectives define the magnitude and effects of an
action. For example, bombing a city with deliberate intentions to kill civilians is morally worse
than bombing to destroy factories in the town. In these two cases, even if the double effect is the
same and the same numbers of civilians die, according to deontology theory, bombing to kill
civilians is morally wrong. That is, unintended but foreseeable harm of killing the civilians is
morally worse than the strategic bombardment. The theory posits that intentions driven by the aim
to harm someone are potentially worse than hurting someone as a side effect of a desirable end.
The primary objective of deontology theory, therefore, urges moral agents to avoid harm.
This means, by all means, the aim shouldn’t focus on causing damage rather prevent the injury.
The theory, therefore, emphasis avoiding harms that leads to focusing on negative obligations
(Thames, 2018). Thus, under deontology theory, the crucial moral principle is to refrain from
intentionally wrong acts such as setting a bomb to kill civilians. The approach, however, faces
criticism in the current human anatomy interests and projects where no one has an obligation
focusing on anyone else’s happiness rather than the self.
Application of the Ethical Theory
Pregnancy interruptions through abortion when neither the mother nor the fetus is at risk
are inherent. This because there are diverse factors to consider, such as reproductive health
concerns and the mental support the woman requires to carry the pregnancy to term. According
to the deontology theory of ethics, an individual is responsible for their actions, and the right
doesn’t necessarily imply maximization of good. Rule deontology holds principles that limit
individuals from causing harm to someone. This helps in reducing conflicts of policies, such as
which law should be given precedence over the other (Thames, 2018. In the ethical question, there
lies the obligation that the fetes have life, and the mother bears it in their body.
On the other hand, there lies the principle of avoiding harm and the obligation of one’s
actions. The moral principle of the deontology theory of avoiding intentional damage shows that
an abortion resulting from rape shouldn’t be executed (Thames, 2018). In other words, it is morally
worse. There is foreseeable harm of terminating the life of the fetes of denying an opportunity to
live. Regardless that the mother lacked consent in conceiving the child, the goal to end the
pregnancy show ill intensions towards human life, which is morally wrong. As in the illustration
of bombing with the intensions of causing civilian deaths and strategic bombing, abortion would
imply that the aim is to cause harm. This means under deontology theory, abortion as a result of
an accident is more morally right than the intensions to cause damage without any other good. It
is, therefore, wrong to execute an abortion from a rape pregnancy. However, this doesn’t imply
the maximization of the good because it is also crucial to consider the health concerns of women
as well as sexual violence laws.
Nimbalkar, S. M., & Patel, D. S. (2019). The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act: Need to
keep pace with technology. Indian journal of medical ethics, 4(1), 59-64.
Thames, B. (2018). How Should One Live? An Introduction to Ethics and Moral Reasoning.

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