California State University Long Beach Own Your Body Data Video Discussion For this assignment it is a discussion post. You would just have to watch a Ted

California State University Long Beach Own Your Body Data Video Discussion For this assignment it is a discussion post. You would just have to watch a Ted Talk and answer the question that is given. Also the discussion has to be a minimum of 150 words. 1. Watch the TED TALK on Own Your Body’s Data.
2. Identify one construct from the Health Belief Model and explain how the construct is
applied in this TED TALK.
3. Explain how you would use Own Your Body’s Data to help a client/patient with their
health behavior change. Make sure to use include one example from the TED TALK in
your explanation.

Discussion has to be 150 words
Main Points
Behavior Theories
• Roots of Current Health Behavior Theory
• Historical development of the HBM
• Key components of the HBM
• Application of the HBM
Roots of Current
Health Behavior Theory
• Primary fields from which most current health behavior
theory come – psychology and social psychology.
Roots of Health Behavior Theory
Behaviorist Psychology
• Idea of shaping behavior, behavior modification.
• Assumption: A stimulus is applied and a behavior results.
– “Thinking” is not a major part of this process.
• Early focus on classical conditioning (Pavlov’s dog).
• Important contributions from ecology, sociology,
anthropology, organizational and community theory,
communications theory, and others.
Behaviorist Psychology
• Example of classical conditioning
– To treat alcoholics, sometimes a
chemical is placed in their drinks that
makes them sick. Eventually the taste of
alcohol becomes aversive. The chemical
that makes the drinker sick is being
paired with the taste of alcohol so that
the alcohol itself becomes the
conditioned stimulus for being sick.
Behaviorist Psychology
• Operant conditioning (Skinner)
– Type of learning in which the likelihood of a behavior is increased or
decreased by the use of positive or negative reinforcements
associated with the behavior.
– Correct behavior will be positively reinforced (i.e., praise, attention,
feedback, recognition).
– Incorrect behavior will be negatively reinforced (i.e., not rewarded,
ignored, punished).
– Examples of reinforcements.
Behaviorist Psychology
• Examples of Operant Conditioning
– Training a dog to do tricks by rewarding. Using food to
reinforce the correct behavior.
– In a weight management class, participants earn
points for every healthy meal they eat and every
period of exercise they complete. Later these points
result in refunds of their class fees. The behaviors
being conditioned are healthy eating and regular
exercise. The reinforcement is the refund of the fees.
The points are a token system.
Behaviorist Psychology
Personality Types & Traits
• Behavior de-conditioned (modification) is still used in
smoking cessation, addiction treatment and other programs.
• A dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by
a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions,
motivations, and behaviors in various situations.
• The basic assumptions about learning behavior through
positive and negative reinforcements appear in a number of
health behavior theories.
• Theorists generally assume that traits:
– are relatively stable over time
– differ among individuals
– influence behavior
5 Basic Personality Traits
• Extroversions – – outgoing and stimulation oriented vs. quiet
and stimulation avoiding
• Neuroticism – – emotionally reactive, prone to negative
emotions vs. calm and optimistic
• Agreeableness – – approachable, friendly, peacemaker vs.
aggressive, dominate, disagreeable
• Conscientiousness – – dutiful, planful, and orderly vs. laidback, spontaneous, and unreliable
• Openness to experience – -Open to new ideas and change
vs. traditional and oriented toward routine
Personality Traits & HP
• The personality trait perspective on motivation is compelling
because we all know people who seem to be of a certain
type, people who are particularly extroverted, aggressive,
impulsive, rational, or emotional.
• HP programs can be developed to fit or account for certain
personality traits.
Social Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
• Focus is on the THINKING PROCESS (perception, decisionmaking, interpretation, reasoning, judgment) as the source of
behavior, in contrast to behaviorist psychology.
• Concerned about how individuals (and their mental
processes) interact with their social surroundings – groups,
• The influence of cognitive psychology is present in many of
the individual-level theories.
• Social influences on health behavior
– Health Belief Model
– Theory of Planned Behavior
– adolescents who smoke/drink exert pressure on their friends to take
up these behaviors.
– adolescents do/do not take up on behaviors to conform and fit in with
their friends
– HP programs might focus on peer pressure resistance, perceived
social norms
– Social Cognitive Theory
Social Psychology
• An important issue is the nature of social influence on
individual behavior.
• Famous experiment on authority and obedience (Stanley
Authority & Obedience
• Purpose of study: Test the effects of punishment on learning.
By Stanley Milgram
– experiments started 3 months after the trial of a Nazi war criminal.
Question: were the criminals just following orders?
– tested the willingness of individuals to administer a harmful electric shock to
other individuals if instructed to do so by persons who were presented as
– raised questions about people’s willingness to set aside their own moral
judgments in order to obey or conform to authority.
– 65% of subjects approached the 450v shock
E = Experimenter
S= Subject
A= Actor
• Interested in the broad influences on behavior of being part
of a group.
– group membership, including race, nationality, culture, profession,
community, and family
– often share common beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors
• Each affiliation shapes our values and behavior in important
• Examples: How does being affiliated with these groups
shape values and behaviors?
– Families
• influence the socialization of children (parenting, modeling behaviors).
– School
• youth in band socialized differently than youth in gangs.
• private vs public school
– Religion
• Interested in group behavior, social class, power, gender, and
race and their effects on behavior and health.
๏discrimination, migration, social class, social status, and justice.
• Economic opportunity, fair policies, and access to decent
housing, schooling, and health care are major determinants
of health, so improving these social factors should be the
focus of PH and HP.
Cultural Anthropology
• Focus on the role of culture in human behavior.
– Cultural beliefs, attitudes, social-cultural roles, gender, language,
symbolic expression, healing practices, healers.
• Influences on health behavior theory:
– holistic (ecological) approaches – – The idea that human behavior
can never properly be understood outside the social, cultural, and
situational context in which it occurs.
– cultural influence on treatment and care, values
and meanings as connected to behavior
– cultural constructions of disease and illness.
Introduction to
Value Expectancy Theories
• Consider your own personal health behavior for a
Historical Development of the
Health Belief Model
– Why do you or do you not exercise, eat healthfully, wear a safety belt
when riding in a car, and drink diet or regular soda, water or juice,
beer or wine?
• Consider the possibility of initiating a new behavior,
such as a new diet or a new exercise routine.
– Students: What factors would influence the likelihood of adopting this
new behavior and how important is each factor?
Value Expectancy Theories
• Developed to explain how an individual’s behavior(s) is/are
influenced by beliefs and attitudes toward objects and
• Suggests that behavior is likely when the advantages of a
particular action outweigh the costs (i.e., flu shot/illness).
– value the outcome related to the behavior (flu shot):
avoiding illnesses/getting well
– expect that a specific health action (flu shot) may prevent illness;
they think that the behavior is likely to result in that outcome.
An Ecological Perspective: Levels of Influence
How did HBM start?
Summary of Theories:
Focus and Key Concepts
• Originated in the 1950s from the work
of U.S. Public Health Service
(USPHS) social psychologists Godfrey
Hochbaum, Irwin Rosenstock, and
Stephen Kegels.
• What do we know about TB?
• The USPHS were providing free TB
screenings in mobile clinics that were
placed right in the neighborhood.
Origins of The HBM
• Very few people were being screened.
• In 1952, Hochbaum conducted research to find out why
turnout was so low, given the easy and free access.
• In conducting this research, the larger issue that he
investigated was MOTIVATION. He asked, what motivated
people to come out and get screened?
The Health Belief Model
• Initially the researchers looked at:
– Perceived susceptibility
• beliefs about the possibility of getting TB and
the extent to which they believed one could
have TB in the absence of symptoms.
– Perceived benefit
• belief that x-rays could find TB without
symptoms, and belief that early detection
would improve the prognosis.
The Health Belief Model
• Hochbaum showed that perceived susceptibility and
perceived benefits of a screening behavior are associated
with behavior performance.
• Its early formulation, health seeking and other health
behavior was thought to be motivated by 4 factors:
– perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits of an
action, perceived barriers to taking that action.
– Added: cues to action and self-efficacy.
The Health Belief Model
• The premise of HBM is that people are ready to act when
they regard themselves susceptible to a condition that has
serious consequences.
Health Belief Model
People will take action to prevent, screen for or control a condition of ill-health IF:
Key Components of the HBM
Health Belief Model
Perceived Severity
Beliefs about how serious is
the health problem and its
thinks having the flu is
• Specify the consequences
severe and if she doesn’t get (physical, social, and
the flu shot, the
practical) of risks and
consequences can be
• Recommend action.
• This leads to PERCEIVED
• Jill
Health Belief Model
Perceived Benefits
Beliefs about the
BENEFITS of action to
reduce a health threat.
Jill thinks if she gets the flu
shot, this may provide her
with some protection against
the flu.
• Define populations(s) at risk and
their risk levels.
• Tailor risk information based on an
individual’s characteristics or
• Help the individual develop an
accurate perception of his or her
own risk.
Perceived Susceptibility AND Perceived Severity combine to form PERCEIVED THREAT.
Perceived Threat
Overall perception of threat Jill thinks she is not likely to • Provide a range of logical
get the flu because she
to health.
avoids contact with people • The action the individual takes
who appear to be sick.
depends upon the next two
1. Perceived Benefits
2. Perceived Barriers
Health Belief Model
Health Belief Model
People will take action to prevent, screen for or control a condition of ill-health IF:
Jill thinks she is not
susceptible to the flu
because she is a young
college student.
Health Belief Model
Health Belief Model
Beliefs about the
person’s likelihood of
having the problem.
Health Belief Model
People will take action to prevent, screen for or control a condition of ill-health IF:
Explain how, where, and when
to take action and what the
potential positive results will
People will take action to prevent, screen for or control a condition of ill-health IF:
Perceived Barriers
Beliefs about the
psychological, time,
expense, and other costs of
Jill doesn’t have medical
insurance. She also thinks
she might get sick from
getting the flu shot.
• Offer
incentives, and assistance.
• Correct misinformation.
Health Belief Model
Health Belief Model
Health Belief Model
Health Belief Model
The model postulates that the person compares benefits and barriers, and this helps
decide the course of action.
Cues to Action
Information about perceived
threat, benefits, barriers of
particular actions; provide the
force to act (triggers).
external cues (TV, friends)
internal cues (experience)
• Jill’s friend got the flu
and Jill researches the
flu on the Internet.
• Provide
”how to”
• Promote awareness.
• Employ reminder systems.
Health Belief Model
People will take action to prevent, screen for or control a condition of ill-health IF:
Confidence in one’s ability to Jill believes she has the
take specific action.
ability to go to the health
center and get the flu shot.
Give verbal reinforcement.
Reduce anxiety.
Critiques of HBM
• Focus is on individual decisions – doesn’t account well for social
and environmental factors.
• Useful for identifying cognitions that can be targeted for intervention
and suggests that people are likely to be influenced by new
information, has little to say about methods or types of intervention
that might be effective.
• Assumes that everyone has equal access to, and an equivalent
level of information from which to make rational (cost-benefit)
calculations. The HBM does not really account for disparities in
knowledge, although it has a potential effect on those disparities
(provide information = increased knowledge).
Application of
Health Belief Model
Application of the HBM
Application of HBM:
Hooking Up
Application of HBM:
Hooking Up
• Sexual risk taking among college students:
• Methods
– Unprotected sex and multiple sex partners, sex while under the
influence of alcohol or drugs.
– Semistructured interviews with 71 college students about their
hooking-up experiences.
– Might experience unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted
infections (STIs), and sexual violence.
– Eligibility: participation in at least one hookup, namely a sexual
activity (kissing and fondling of the breasts or genitals, or oral, anal,
or vaginal sex) with someone to whom they had no relational
– As hooking up threatens the sexual, physical, and psychological
health of college-age youth, understanding sexual risk taking within
the context of this popular practice is important.
– Explores college students’ beliefs regarding sexual risk taking during
hooking up.
– Questionnaire on general demographics and sexual orientation.
– Then a four-part interview began.
Application of HBM:
Hooking Up
• Methods: Four-Part Interview Assessed
– Part 1 students’ perceptions of sex and dating norms on campus,
and what they thought their peers and friends believed about the
pros, cons, and acceptability of hooking up.
– Part 2 events that occurred during students’ most recent hookup.
– Part 3 students’ evaluations of their hooking-up experiences as a
– Part 4 students’ perception of sexual risk taking during hooking up,
with respect to STIs.
Application of HBM:
Hooking Up
• Demographics
– Predominately White, Christian, heterosexual demographics of the
midwestern region of the United States.
– Ages ranged from 18 to 24, with the average being about 19.5 years.
– Six seniors, 9 juniors, 17 sophomores, 39 freshman
– One participant self-identified as gay, 2 identified as bisexual, all of
the others identified as heterosexual.
Application of HBM:
Hooking Up
• Of the 69 students who indicated the highest level of sexual
intimacy that occurred during their last hookup before the
Application of HBM:
Hooking Up RESULTS
– Perceived Susceptibility to Adverse Outcomes
– 53.6% (n = 37) had vaginal intercourse
• Many of the students were unaware of their own vulnerability to STIs.
– 30.4% (n = 21) had either given or received oral sex
• About 50% of the students were concerned about contracting an STI during a
hookup that involved sexual intercourse.
– 15.9% (n = 11) had experienced either sexual touching or
• Of the 69 students who indicated how far they went during
their last hookup, more than 80% experienced a level of
sexual intimacy that required protection against STIs.
• The majority of students were not concerned about contracting an STI during a
hookup that went only as far as fellatio or cunnilingus.
Application of HBM:
Hooking Up
Application of HBM:
Hooking Up
• RESULTS: Perceived Susceptibility to Adverse
Outcomes (Con’t)
– Perceptions of the Level of Severity
– Common reasons students underestimated their vulnerability to
• they placed too much trust in their partners, with respect to STIs in general.
• they placed too much trust in their community, especially with respect to HIV/
AIDS, they believed that the low prevalence in their midwestern state
warranted their not concerning themselves about it.
• they were inadequately informed of the risk of STIs, especially with respect to
oral sex.
Application of HBM:
Hooking Up
– Self-Efficacy
• A critical issue among students who failed to use protection was that although
they expressed high levels of perceived self-efficacy in terms of their
knowledge about and ability to use protection, they demonstrated a lack of
efficacy in terms of their preparedness for the type of unexpected sexual
intercourse that occurs during hooking up.
• They portrayed themselves as inefficacious in terms of their ability to discuss
STIs and the use of protection with their partners.
• Many stated that the worst possible outcome of a hookup would be contracting
an STI.
– Perceived Benefits and Barriers
• Although most believed that protective methods such as condoms would
effectively prevent STIs, some feared that insistence on using protection might
thwart their chances for having sex, or compromise their pleasure.
• Interference with sexual pleasure.
Application of HBM:
Hooking Up
• Self-Efficacy and Students
– Knew how to prevent STIs during sexual intercourse;
– Knew where they could obtain or purchase protective barriers, and understood how to
use them;
– Unaware of how they could protect themselves, or that protection was necessary,
during oral sex (not one student interviewed reported using a protective barrier during
oral sex);
– Those who did not use protection emphasized the difficulty of being prepared for their
casual sexual encounters.
– Many students expressed a lack of efficacy when they assumed or hoped that their
partners would tell them if they had an STI, and were uncomfortable directly
addressing the issue.
– About 81% of those who reported using alcohol stated that the alcohol played a role
in the occurrence and evolution of the hookup.

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