Columbia Southern University Using Communication in an Organization Paper You will research the different ways that managers and leaders use communication

Columbia Southern University Using Communication in an Organization Paper You will research the different ways that managers and leaders use communication to guide their organizations.

Find an instance where the organizational leader communicates directly with his or her employees, investors, or customers. Analyze the message, the channel, and the potential for feedback. Do you believe that it is effective? Do you believe that it is the same type of message that a manager would send? Why, or why not?

Remember to focus on the communication styles of both leaders and managers. Strive for an equal balance between the two types of communication styles in your assignment.

Example: The Apple events that occur in Cupertino whenever Apple unveils a new product or service are examples of the type of communication you should be analyzing in this assignment. During the events, CEO Tim Cook addresses an audience of employees, investors, and the general public. Cook uses multiple channels to communicate with the audience, including a live face-to-face discussion, live streaming of the discussion, and a recorded video. For the assignment, you would view one of the events, analyze Cook’s message and the effectiveness of the channels, and discuss the potential for feedback. Analyze whether or not the message is an effective example of leadership. Explain whether or not you believe a manager could, or should, use the same types of channels to relay a message. Would it be effective?

Note: You do not need to use Apple for this assignment. It is provided as an example only.

Use the standard five-paragraph format (introduction/body/conclusion). Include at least two academic sources. APA format should be used. The assignment should be a minimum of two pages in length, not including the title and reference pages. UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE
The Different Communication Styles
of Managers and Leaders
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
7. Summarize the differences in communication styles of managers vs. leaders.
7.1. Describe different ways managers and leaders use communication to guide their organizations.
7.2. Discuss the effectiveness of communication through the message, channel, and the potential
for feedback.
Learning Outcomes
Learning Activity
Unit Lesson
Unit VII Presentation
Article: “Voice flows to and around leaders: Understanding when units are
helped or hurt by employee voice”
Article: “Inside Apple’s code war”
Article: “Leadership versus management in public organizations”
Unit VII Mini Project
Unit Lesson
Article: “Leadership versus management in public organizations”
Unit VII Presentation
Unit VII Mini Project
Unit Lesson
Unit VII Presentation
Unit VII Mini Project
Reading Assignment
In order to access the following resources, click the links below:
Detert, J. R., Burris, E. R., Harrison, D. A., & Martin, S. R. (2013). Voice flows to and around leaders:
Understanding when units are helped or hurt by employee voice. Administrative Science Quarterly,
58(4), 624-668. Retrieved from
Grossman, L. (2016). Inside Apple’s code war. Time, 187(11), 42-49. Retrieved from
Solomon, I. G., Costea, C., & Nita, A. M. (2016). Leadership versus management in public organizations.
Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 11(1), 143-151. Retrieved from
Click here to view the Unit VII Presentation.
Click here to view the Unit VII Presentation transcript.
BBA 2026, Organizational Communication
Unit Lesson
When discussing the difference between leadership and management, many articles, books, seminars,
workshops, video series, and motivational presentations have been created. A simple search in the CSU
Online Library, or with a search engine like Google or Bing, will reveal a plethora of resources that address
the issue. The sources provide a variety of opinions on how to define the two roles and how to help a
manager transition into the role of a leader or how a leader can become a more effective manager.
It is important to realize that the two roles are not mutually exclusive, but the tasks each complete in an
organization require a certain set of skills. Managers usually focus on specific work and tasks that fit within
the subject of a designated resource: human, time, financial, equipment, and so forth. The skills managers
develop work within the constraints of the system and enforce the desired standards of work on the
employees. Leaders, on the other hand, often concentrate on the long-term vision or goal of the organization
and work on defining the system that allows the organization to operate. Leaders concentrate more on the
overall view and try to expand the standards of work by motivating, mentoring, and building relationships with
Organizations need managers to decide about resources and manage risk. Acquiring resources requires a
significant investment for an organization, so managers need to make good decisions, not just about
technology, but also when hiring new employees. For example, Christina Merhar (2016) estimates that every
time an organization hires a salaried employee, it costs between six and nine months’ salary on average in
recruiting and training expenses. Deciding upon the employees to hire for a job is an essential part of working
within the constraints of the system.
Hiring talented employees and retaining them is part of creating a functioning organization. The leadership
role focuses on the overall view of employee retention and expands standards that will benefit the
organization. After all, as Merhar (2016) suggests, beyond the cost of hiring and training new employees,
organizations face additional costs in lost productivity and engagement, increased customer service errors,
loss of income due to dissatisfied customers, and a cultural impact with other employees.
Beyond employee hiring and retention, though, organizations need to work with strategic partners, academic
institutions, and also contract workers. Both managers and leaders are required to achieve these tasks, and
their primary tool is communication.
While this information is focused on managers, it can also help employees and staff who are looking to move
from their current role to a more visible leadership position. As Detert, Burris, Harrison, and Martin (2013)
relate, leaders are not just those in the most senior positions in organizations. They define leaders as
members of the organization who formally oversee the collective effort of employees who are accountable for
measured results.
Case Study: Apple Versus the U.S. Government
In order to understand the way in which a leader communicates, it can be helpful to study a real-life situation.
Tim Cook, who is the CEO of Apple, has been embroiled in a public debate regarding a request from the U.S.
government to unlock an iPhone. Apple has complied with the government in the past, but the current
situation is different due to the scope of the request.
The phone is owned by the San Bernardino Department of Public Health, which provided it as a work phone
for Syed Rizwan Farook, one of the shooter suspects in a massacre in San Bernardino, California, where 14
people were killed, and 22 people were injured. Due to the iOS8 operating system installed on the phone,
data (e.g., photos, messages, contacts, call history) is securely encrypted using a password. Apple cannot
bypass the passcode to obtain the data; this is one of the selling-features that the company provides for its
customers. The encryption protects users from hackers and criminals.
In “Inside Apple’s Code War,” Lev Grossman (2016) explains that after the Orange County Regional
Computer Forensics Laboratory retrieved the phone and booted it up, the authorities learned that it required a
passcode for access. Since the phone belonged to San Bernardino County, a technician was able to remotely
BBA 2026, Organizational Communication
reset the iCloud password. Unfortunately, this meant that the iPhone, which has
its own
would no
longer back up information to iCloud.
If the iCloud password had not been changed, Apple could have provided the iPhone’s back up data to the
government. However, as Kim Zetter (2016) notes, by changing the iCloud password, there is no chance for
the iPhone to back up additional data. Zetter (2016) states that the best opportunity to get the data from the
iPhone was nullified by the technician changing the Apple ID. If this had not occurred, then Apple would not
have to resist the government’s attempt to break the security of its own operating system.
What would have been a simple request before the change now resulted in a massive issue. The FBI
requested that Apple make a new version of the iPhone operating system that circumvented important
security features and install it on the iPhone recovered during the investigation of Syed Rizwan Farook.
Apple’s argument is that once this type of software is developed, it can be used to unlock any iPhone, and
there would be no way to limit its use.
Zetter (2016) explains that Apple has a standard procedure when working with government agencies. There
is a specific department set up to deal with technical requests of this sort, and Apple technicians walked the
government agents through the standard process of retrieving the data. The agents did not inform the Apple
technicians that the iCloud password had been changed, however, so the information remained locked.
The managers, at this point, had focused on one specific area: They were working on the technical support
aspect of the phone. Their communications were centered on fixing this one particular problem; they were
meeting the specific demands of a single situation.
Cook became involved when the FBI requested that Apple create a new version of iOS 9 that would allow
them to unlock the phone. At this point, the issue had moved from a single situation to one of company policy.
Cook did not just make a unilateral decision; instead, he consulted with his managers and staff. Cook
explained that the company engaged in long, internal discussions prior to the decision being made (as cited in
Grossman, 2016).
This is an area of leadership. The leader has to be focused on how all of the departments in an organization
work together. Since this is a problem that could affect the entire company, Cook took the time to gather
feedback from his executives, managers, and staff. Each person had an opportunity to provide information
and to influence the decision.
When the U.S. government filed a motion to compel Apple’s assistance in unlocking the iPhone, the situation
changed once again. By not filing a sealed case, Grossman (2016) notes, the FBI was trying to bring the court
of public opinion into play about the issue. As the leader of Apple, Cook was now faced with anticipating the
reactions of his employees to this situation, as well as customers, strategic partners, and so forth. He needed
to make decisions in regard to this issue, but he also needed to explain the rationale for those decisions to
everyone involved.
Creating a Communications Strategy that Fosters Change and Innovation
Cook addressed this through creating messages about Apple’s company mission, goals, and responsibilities.
He stressed Apple’s dedication to helping law enforcement and provided details on the special efforts the
company makes to provide support. Cook focused on customer protection, security, and human rights under
the U.S. Constitution. He provided transparency with the court documents and Apple’s response.
Along with conducting media interviews to clarify Apple’s position, Cook released “A Message to our
Customers” where he stressed the company’s efforts to keep consumers’ information private. The letter calls
for public discussion of the issues and presents an overview of the situation so both Apple customers and
people throughout the United States can understand what is at stake. He lays out the argument for keeping
encryption and adds that if the government uses the All Writs Act to unlock one iPhone, it would have the
ability to go into any device to monitor and/or collect data. This would extend to health records, financial data,
BBA 2026, Organizational Communication
and location tracking. The All Writs Act could be used to constantly access and
any smart
microphone and camera without the user’s knowledge (Cook, 2016).
In the letter, Cook states that this legal challenge by Apple was not taken lightly but with the deepest respect
for American democracy. He feels that the organization is standing up to an overreach of authority by the U.S.
government. He welcomes a discussion with the public where people consider the full implications of
government surveillance to this extent. Cook concludes the letter by stating that, while the FBI has good
intentions in this one case, what will follow will undermine the freedoms and liberty of law-abiding citizens who
our government should be protecting (Cook, 2016).
Variations of this message have been repeated by Cook in interviews and at the Town Hall meeting that
occurs quarterly at 1 Infinite Circle Plaza. But Cook goes one step further in certain interviews, pointing out
that even if the government outlaws encryption by companies in the United States, criminals will simply
download apps from outside its borders. Since the Internet is worldwide, it is easy to purchase encryption
apps from other countries. So the criminals’ data would be unavailable to law enforcement, and everyone else
would be vulnerable. Financial information, personal messages, photos, and work documents—anything
stored on a computer, tablet, or smart phone—would be vulnerable. This type of technology, Cook states, will
only affect good, law-abiding citizens. It will not deter criminals (as cited in Grossman, 2016).
Cook, T. (2016). A message to our customers. Retrieved from
Detert, J. R., Burris, E. R., Harrison, D. A., & Martin, S. R. (2013). Voice flows to and around leaders:
Understanding when units are helped or hurt by employee voice. Administrative Science Quarterly,
58(4), 624-668.
Grossman, L. (2016). Inside Apple’s code war. Time, 187(11), 42-49.
Merhar, C. (2016, February 4). Employee retention – the real cost of losing an employee [Blog post].
Retrieved from
Zetter, K. (2016, February 19). Apple says the government bungled its chance to get that iPhone’s data.
Wired. Retrieved from
Suggested Reading
In order to access the following resources, click the links below:
The articles below highlight some of the issues related to the topics discussed in the Unit VII Lesson.
Merhar, C. (2016, February 4). Employee retention—the real cost of losing an employee [Blog post].
Retrieved from
Zetter, K. (2016, February 19). Apple says the government bungled its chance to get that iPhone’s data.
Wired. Retrieved from
BBA 2026, Organizational Communication
Learning Activities (Nongraded)
Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.
Apply What You Have Learned
In your current (or past) place of employment, reflect on how leaders communicate company policy.
BBA 2026, Organizational Communication

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