HHS460 Ashford University Research Methods in Health & Human Services HW Review your classmates’ posts, and respond to your peers. When responding to your classmates, please provide in-depth feedback on their post and cite any sources used to further their discussion (100 to 150 words each) why do you agree or disagree.There should be a total of 5 separate responses. HHS 460 Research Methods in Health & Human Services
Applied Social Research
Review your classmates’ posts, and respond to your peers. When responding to your
classmates, please provide in-depth feedback on their post and cite any sources used to
further their discussion (100 to 150 words each) why do you agree or disagree. There
should be a total of 5 separate responses.
Discussion 1 Respond to Celeste and Elizabeth
Ethics in Research
Ethics plays an important role in conducting of research. While the individual researcher is
responsible for his/her ethical practice, any research sponsored by an organization, university,
or government program has a review process guided by a code of ethics. Besides the code of
ethics, the Institutional Review Board (IRB) plays an important role in monitoring research.
Your task in this discussion is to examine the origins of the IRB and analyze how the Review
Board guides or monitors research. In your 250-300 word post answer the following three
What does the IRB do to protect a research participant from harm?
One of the reasons for the existence of the IRB has to do with screening research applications.
What is the basis for such screening?
The IRB provides the guidelines for ethical research practice. What would the researcher
responsibilities be in terms of these guidelines?
Thursday Oct 31 at 7:42pm
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The primary purpose of your Institutional Review Board is to protect the rights and the
welfare of participants recruited to participate in research activities. Being under the
authority of the IRB, works to ensure participants are not unnecessarily exposed to risk. It
provides all of the participants are informed of any danger and what the research entails.
When IRB begins the screening research process, the review is done to make sure that all of
the research is ethical and in compliance with state and federal regulations. This process
also ensures research confidentiality. The screening process also makes sure that any risk
associated with the study is reasonable for that study. It screens participants deemed
eligible for participation in the study. Lastly, this process is used to make any specific
determination regarding informed consent and safeguards for human rights.
As a researcher, some responsibilities would include:
obtaining IRB approval
ensuring there are resources to carry out the research safely
having a qualified research staff
personally supervising or conducting the research
protecting the right of participants
not changing the research w/o approval from IRB
Overall the IRB is put in place to maintain compliance and integrity of the research and to
look out for the human right of the participants.
“Advances in human health and welfare ultimately depend on research with human
subjects. Properly controlled studies with human subjects are essential to verify any
conclusions about normal physiology, mechanisms of disease, effectiveness of treatment,
learning, or behavior…experiments with human subjects should occur only in the context of
a clear scientific rationale and only with subjects who have freely chosen to participate.”
(Office of Research, n.d.) There have been several times throughout experiments where
human subjects have been withheld information. The IRB makes sure the subjects are fully
aware of what will be happening and they are okay with the experiment(s) as a whole.
“Screening activities start the moment the investigator obtains information about the
prospective participant to determine if they are eligible for the research.” (Children’s
Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, 2019) Human subjects will be asked to provide
personal information to determine if they are eligible. Consent forms can be given solely
for screening. The researchers responsibility is to treat the human subjects as humans and
not as a means to an end. They must remain conscience that these are actual humans being
tested and to continue to be somewhat compassionate. It is not to view human subjects as
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. (2019). Recruitment vs Screening. Children’s Hospital
of Philadelphia Research Institute. Retrieved from
Office of Research. (n.d.) Human Subjects in Research. Office of Research. Retrieved from
Discusion 2 Respond to Samantha, Geneva, and Jennifer
Assume you were interested in the issues related to violence in elementary level school
children. You are aware of the increased incidences of bullying, leading to serious problems.
Specifically, you want to video tape children’s behavior out of school on their way home to
and from school. You want to capture, on video, the social interactions that take place, trying
to record behaviors that are definitely bullying behaviors or “could lead to bullying.” So you
are focusing on the perpetration of bullying. For this discussion, you are asked to identify
“ethical” factors involved in your proposed research. Your list would include research issues
and ethical implications beyond the basic informed consent condition.
Yesterday Nov 2 at 8:38pm
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Ethical concerns in research become more present when the research is involving children
being videotaped because children are not able to speak for themselves in most situations
so their rights need to be protected at all times. The ethical concerns of consent as well as
privacy are the main concerns when discussing the recording of children bullying outside
of school. Children have the right to consent to being recorded or videotaped by their
parents who must sign a form allowing their child to be researched or watched for a study.
In the situation of bullying, in most cases parents will not want their child to be studied
because bullying can sometimes become very graphic and this is not something that a
parent wants to see happen to their child.
Privacy is another ethical concern with research that will be recording children because the
amount of information a child wants to reveal must be discussed before completing any
research. If the parent of the child only wants to allow their child’s face to be seen or not
seen this is a part of the privacy guideline that needs to be followed to make sure the
research completed is always ethical and not harming the child in any way. Bullying is a
very sensitive topic and this can provide help in was to solve the problem of bullying as
long as the research completed is always ethical an uses the appropriate forms of research
on each child. Privacy is also a ethical concern because who these videos are shred with
becomes a huge privacy issue when they can be shared with a small group of people or
with the whole world. When used to study bullying the videos should only be used inside of
school and for educational purposes to eliminate the issue if bullying so that each child’s
privacy and safety rights are protected at all times. Knowing the correct ways to remain
ethical with your research will allow a more effective study to be completed without having
to worry about the research being unlawful or not able to be used.
Thursday Oct 31 at 10:29pm
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One of the most ethical issues is informed consent. The IRB also should be particularly
mindful of the particular problems of research involving vulnerable populations such as
children, prisoners, pregnant women, mentally disabled persons, or economically or
educationally disadvantaged persons(3.1). These children have a right to privacy. People
should never be exposed to situations that might cause serious or lasting harm.
Confidentiality ensures that information about or data collected from those who participate
in a study are not made public in a way that can be linked to an individual(3.1). Anonymity
is in place, so no one, including the researcher, can connect any data to a particular
respondent(3.1). If any information gets back to the bully that was leaked it could cause
danger to the participant in the research. If the child is being bullied they might fear for
their safety. Researchers can not put participants in any physical or mental distress or
danger, and if this arises then participants should be fully informed, the potential research
findings should be of sufficient importance to warrant the risk, and no possibility should
exist for achieving the results without this risk(3.1). Also, children know they are being
watched. Do you think bullies would condemn themselves and allow you to do the
research? Sometimes participants can change the way they act, and the research would not
be accurate. There also can be ethical issues with the school and them not wanting things to
get out that they have a problem with children being bullied. It could harm the school’s
reputation of being a great school where a child can be in a safe environment. So it could
cause issues for the school also.
Ethical issues are critical components of modern research associated with the researchers
and the subject. Although the main ethical factor involved with my research will be
informed consent, it is a matter of fact that other ethical considerations will be involved, as
well. One of these factors is respect for anonymity and confidentiality. This factor involves
safeguarding confidential communications that may happen among the children and
ensuring that their personal identities are not revealed (Lumby et al., 2018). Beneficence is
another ethical issue that will affect my research. This ethical issue involves ensuring I do
not harm any children regardless of how emotional I might be after witnessing bullying
situations among them.
I anticipate signal tracking to be an issue in my research. Capturing children while walking
and some running might be a great hustle. To achieve desired and up to point results, I
might need a high definition camera and skills to use it (Lumby et al., 2018). Hopefully, this
research will be beneficial to the concerned authority, including the school administration,
on strategizing on how to deal with the bullying conditions. In this case, it will be
paramount for me to put in to account all of these factors.
Lumby, C., Albury, K., McKee, A., & Hugman, S. (2018). Ethical issues in qualitative research
addressing sensitive issues with children and young people. In Youth, Technology,
Governance, Experience (pp. 101-116). Routledge.
Jennifer responded to Donna. Please answer questions that Jennifer ask Donna. (see
both Donna and Jennifer post to answer questions)
Thank you for participating in the discussion Donna, great work. You bring up an interesting
point about confidentiality. It is important to ensure confidentiality and that would be difficult
considering the location of the recordings of the kids. Is there a way to ensure confidentiality
while performing this research study? I think obtaining informed consent from the child and
parent may be difficult. In the state of Colorado, youth as young t 12 years old are able to
consent to services, What are you thought on this age of informed consent?
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