JLC110: Is Violent Resistance Against a Perceived Injustice Ever Justified? Question: Is violent resistance against a perceived injustice ever justified?Ci

JLC110: Is Violent Resistance Against a Perceived Injustice Ever Justified? Question: Is violent resistance against a perceived injustice ever justified?Cite from five of: Aristotle; Augustine; Aquinas; Innocent III; Pope Gregory; Martin Luther; any other from class reader Can you also choose two or more people from the above and compare their different idea about is violent resistance against a perceived injustice ever justified? in this paperThank you so much. 1. Paper Writing Guide
Your written papers are one of your real chances to demonstrate your knowledge, expertise
and opinion about the questions posed in a one-on-one with me. You should view this as an
opportunity to impress!
1.Key Points to Remember!
This is a Reading Response paper – it is NOT a summary of your lecture notes. The
lectures provide context and explanation to the philosopher’s ideas or the legal structures
in place. They are not YOUR personal response to the readings you have completed.
Do not write a summary of your lecture notes! DO NOT CITE YOUR
LECTURE NOTES.
Above all else, I want an intelligent answer to the question based on a logical
argument grounded in your readings. Demonstrate to me that you have considered
your argumentation critically (i.e. logically and rationally and how it compares and
contrasts with what authors have already written on the topic) and you will have gone a
long way in achieving a good overall mark.
To focus your minds and your papers, I require a 50 word (max) statement of your argument
at the top of your first page. This statement will answer the question and provide the
main reason for your answer (e.g. “The arguments in favor of the Mixed Constitution in
the Ancient World are still relevant today because…..”). This statement should be in bold
and separate from the rest of your text at the top of the first page.
Commit to an answer, but be aware of counter arguments and counter evidence. Deal with
them in your paper, but once you have found your answer, defend it.
You must provide direct quotes from at least five of the authors listed for each question. A
direct quote involves taking the words of the author from the text, putting them in
quotation marks, integrating them into your paper in a grammatically correct manner and
giving an accurate citation of the direct quote.
Secondary readings are not required. BUT, they will introduce you to better and different
interpretations of the material you are dealing with. The best papers will be written by
students who have read beyond the syllabus and evidenced this reading in their papers.
(Legal) history papers are written in the past tense… “Locke thought…”, not “Locke
thinks…”
The word limit is 1200 words – This means no less than 1100 and no more than 1300. Put a
word count at the end of your paper.
Academic work, particularly historical research, should aim for as much objectivity as
possible. For this reason, try to avoid subjective constructions, such as the first person:
“I think..”, “My view is…”. (If it helps, write those things in your first draft and then
simply go through and delete them when editing – you’ll see they add nothing to your
paper except extra words!)
Do not use contractions in academic work – don’t, wouldn’t, they’re etc.
For the love of all that is good and gracious in this world, please (nay, double please) DO
NOT use the titles of the readings in your papers! They do nothing for your paper
except eat up your word count unnecessarily. Please do not put them in there.
Finally, go through the checklist on the next page before each paper.
1.The Basic Structure
All papers should have THREE main sections (using sub-headings to differentiate is fine,
but they also take up space you will find you do not have):
a. Short and sweet! Outline your paper’s argument concisely but clearly. Do not
write: “My thesis statement is…” Integrate it into your overall paragraph “This paper argues that…”. State how your paper will make this argument in
a logical and clear manner. If I am under ANY doubt at all about what you
will be arguing in your paper by the end of the introduction, then your
introduction has failed its purpose.
In addition, if your introduction starts off with any kind of reference to the ‘passage of
history’, ‘mankind’, ‘human civilization’ or any grandiose concept of this ilk, I guarantee in
advance I will hate your paper. Here’s what to do: Write that sentence (probably something
like: “Since the beginning of human history, civilization has driven mankind’s innate urge for
social organization…”), finish the rest of your introduction, take your mouse, highlight the
whole paragraph, press delete, think briefly about the horrible comments you would have
received on your paper, then carry on writing.
a. Main Body
This is your chance to demonstrate what you have read and the critical approach you have
taken to the statements in it. There are two important points to remember here:
Cite accurately! Please use any recognized citation style of your choosing, but please
stick to one style consistently throughout your work. Take a look at:
http://www.library.american.edu/subject/citation.html for further details on this.
Do not cite needlessly. Providing lots of quotations is not a way to impress me. I am
impressed by strong argumentation which uses citation only to make a specific point.
A good paper will have no room for unnecessary quotation and factual statements
(e.g. dates). If you cannot explain how telling me Socrates was born in 469BC
develops your argument, then it’s unnecessary. Write your papers for a professor
of legal history – this is your audience.
The best papers will include outside readings beyond the primary sources. You
are not required to use outside readings, but I have provided many on each topic in
the ‘Readings’ folder on Blackboard. You must cite these accurately.
Use of Ibid – If you cite consecutively from the same source or reading, you may
substitute the bibliographical data on all but the first cite with the term “Ibid”
(Ibidem is Latin for “the same place”. You still need a page number. This only
works on consecutive citations – if anything comes in between, you need full data
again.
a.The conclusion is the (first and) last thing I will read of your paper, so MAKE IT
COUNT! When writing the conclusion, take the opportunity to reiterate in highly
abbreviated form, the key points, themes or arguments from the body of your essay that you
believe best support the paper’s argument. Avoid introducing new arguments in the
conclusion that you have not supported earlier with evidence; however, you can draw out
fresh implications from previously introduced arguments. Expanding on the general
significance of major ideas that your paper has discussed is often a good way of adding
something extra to take away from your work.
Before Submitting Your Paper…
In your re-read of the paper, ask yourself for each and every sentence: why is this here?
What does this sentence do? Get rid of all “filler material”. Personally, I like to read my
paper aloud, either to myself or to someone else. This is an ideal way of “unclogging”
clumsy argumentation and wording, as well as enabling you to know thoroughly what you
have just written. PROOF READ. PROOF READ. PROOF READ. Your grade will
suffer a gory death if I find needless syntax and spelling errors. Nothing irritates me
more … PROOF READ. PROOF READ. Oh, and by the way, PROOF READ! As
plainly put as possible, you cannot earn an A grade if you have a series of grammatical and
syntax errors in your paper.
Grade Proposal
With each paper submitted, you are required to propose a grade for your paper. It must be
based on the scoring system and rubric included in this syllabus. You are also required to
provide a concise explanation for your proposed grade.
How should I submit my Response Paper?
a.You should submit two documents: (1) your Paper (2) your Grade Proposal. The
checklist can be found on Blackboard.
b.Please name your files using the following format:
Example:
LAST NAME – RP #
LAST NAME – Checklist #
SMITH – RP 1
SMITH – CHECKLIST 1
a.Please only submit files in Microsoft Word.
How should I cite the Class Reader?
a.The first page of the Class Reader explains how to cite from it. Below is an example of
how you should cite from the Class Reader:
b.For both in-text or footnote citations: Plato, Class Reader, pg. 38
a.For your bibliography, give more detailed information about what your are citing
from the Class Reader:
Plato. The Republic, Book 2. Class Reader.
Polybius. The Histories. Book 6, Parts 2-18, Parts 43-57. Class Reader.
Luther. 95 Theses. Class Reader.
a.For sources not from the Class Reader, please cite them in accordance with your
preferred citation style guide (such as APA, Chicago Style, etc). I have no preference as
to citation style – just use one style consistently through each paper.
Explanation of Readings and How to Cite Class Reader

I have endeavoured to find excerpts and readings from available sources online. The
majority of these readings listed below are copied and pasted and the link to the original
source provided as a citation.

Please feel free to download and adjust the formatting to your preferences.

You DO NOT need to print it or bring it to class.
I expect you to have finished the week’s
readings before the first class of the week.

You may cite the class reader in your response papers as “Class Reader, pg XYZ”, using
this Word document as the original for page number purposes.

To speed to a particular reading, you can click on the page number in the contents page
below whilst holding the CTRL button
Secondary Readings

The texts here are all (translated) primary sources – written by the philosophers and thinkers
themselves. Secondary sources about the texts can be found
Page 1 of 459
Contents
Week 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Defining Critical Thinking …………………………………………………………………………………………………4
Michael W. Austin, Standards of Critical Thinking: Thinking Towards Truth ………………………….7
Week 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Plato, The Apology of Socrates ………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Plato, Crito …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….36
Xenophon, Apology of Socrates ……………………………………………………………………………………….49
Plato, The Republic, Book 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………….56
Plato, The Republic, Book 3 …………………………………………………………………………………………….81
Plato, The Republic, Book 5 …………………………………………………………………………………………..122
Plato, The Republic, Book 7 …………………………………………………………………………………………..125
Week 3 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 160
Aristotle, The Politics, Book 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………160
Aristotle, The Politics, Book 4 ………………………………………………………………………………………188
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Book 10, Paragraph 9 …………………………………………………..214
Polybius, The Histories, Book 6, Parts 2-18, Parts 43-57 ……………………………………………………219
James Madison, Federalist 63 …………………………………………………………………………………………241
John Adams, Defence of the Constitutions, Preface …………………………………………………………..248
Week 4 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 262
Cicero, On Laws, Book III ……………………………………………………………………………………………..262
Cicero, On Duties, Book 2, Parts 19-29 ……………………………………………………………………………267
Cicero, On the Commonweath, Book 3 ……………………………………………………………………………280
Epicurus, Principle Doctrines………………………………………………………………………………………….293
Week 5 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 299
Augustine, The Two Cities …………………………………………………………………………………………..299
Tacticus, Germania, first section ……………………………………………………………………………………..302
Week 6 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 315
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, First Part, A, Question 2, Article 3 …………………….315
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Question 91, Articles 1-4 ……………………………………317
Thomas Aquinas, On Human Law ……………………………………………………………………………….324
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Question 105……………………………………………………..332
Thomas Aquinas, On Kingship to the King of Cyprus …………………………………………………..336
Martin Luther King Jr, Letter from a Birmingham Jail ……………………………………………….361
Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Letters and Papers From Prison ………………………………………………….366
Week 7 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 379
Magna Carta ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….379
Innocent III, Annulling Magna Carta …………………………………………………………………………..390
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Third Inaugural Address …………………………………………………..393
Edward Coke, The Second Part of the Institutes …………………………………………………………..397
James I of England, The True Law of Free Monarchies ………………………………………………..399
Thomas Paine, Of Monarch and Hereditary Succession ………………………………………………..403
Week 8 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 412
John of Salisbury, Policratus, Book 4 …………………………………………………………………………..412
Gregory VII, Dictatus Papae………………………………………………………………………………………..452
Frederick Barbarossa, Manifesto …………………………………………………………………………………454
Concordat of Worms……………………………………………………………………………………………………455
Martin Luther, 95 Theses …………………………………………………………………………………………….457
Week 9 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 465
Hugo Grotius, On the Laws of War and Peace, Book 3, Chapter 11 …………………………………….465
Immanuel Kant, Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose, Proposition 5-8 …474
Week 10 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 481
Immanuel Kant, Practical Reason, from Critique of Pure Reason ………………………………………..481
Immanuel Kant, The Philosophy of Law: An Exposition of the Fundamental Principles of
Jurisprudence as the Science of Right [1796] ……………………………………………………………..502
Week 11 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 516
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Chapters XIII, XIV, XVII, XVIII …………………………………………..516
John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, Chapters 5, 8, 19 ………………………………………….540
Jean Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on Inequality ……………………………………………………………….584
Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract …………………………………………………………………….590
Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Women, Chapter 5 ………………………………..597
Week 12 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 614
Jeremy Bentham, Critical Examination of the Declaration of Rights, Preliminary
Observations, Article I and Article II…………………………………………………………………………614
Page 3 of 459
Jeremy Bentham, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation,………………………….633
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, Chapter 1 …………………………………………………………………………..652
Week 13 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 665
GWF Hegel, Philosophy of Right, “The State” …………………………………………………………………665
Karl Marx, Das Kapital, Chapter 31 ………………………………………………………………………………..717
Hannah Arendt, Modern Politics and the Idea of History ……………………………………………………751
Week 1
Defining Critical Thinking
“Defining Critical Thinking.” The Critical Thinking Community.
Critical thinking…the awakening of the intellect to the study of itself.
Critical thinking is a rich concept that has been developing throughout the past 2500 years. The
term “critical thinking” has its roots in the mid-late 20th century. We offer here overlapping
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definitions, together which form a substantive, transdisciplinary conception of critical thinking.
Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987
A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual International
Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer 1987.
Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully
conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from,
or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to
belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend
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subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence,
good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness.
It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning:
purpose, problem, or question-at-issue; assumptions; concepts; empirical grounding; reasoning
leading to conclusions; implications and consequences…
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