Massasoit WK2 Critical Infrastructure Protection Annotated Bibliography paper must be an in a correct APA format, use correct grammar, and will need to inc

Massasoit WK2 Critical Infrastructure Protection Annotated Bibliography paper must be an in a correct APA format, use correct grammar, and will need to include at least five (5) resources, ALL of which must:

1) Be current. Published within the last 5 years.

2) Be peer-reviewed.

3) Relate directly to defense in depth in the context of protecting National Infrastructure.

Remember that an annotation is not the same as an abstract. Abstracts are descriptive. Your annotations are to be evaluative and critical. Give me enough information for me to decide if I am interested enough to read the paper, and also how you perceive the paper. Do not go skimpy on these annotations, but DO NOT write too much here. Quality is far more critical than quantity. This exercise is for each of you to demonstrate that you can identify, categorize, and digest multiple research papers.

Every resource you choose must be peer-reviewed. That means the paper must have undergone a formal peer review before being published in a journal or presented at a conference. You must ensure that your resources have undergone rigorous reviews. In most cases, you can find out the review process for a conference or journal by visiting the appropriate web site. Do not merely assume that a resource is a peer-reviewed – check it out.

Here are a few URLs with additional information: (I Strongly suggest that you look at these. Really.) <<<< Check out the "Rules! Rules! rules!" section Requirements: Attached is the previous Annotated Bibliography. please elaborate the same paper and extend it to up to 13 pages. Need 7 more additional pages to complete this Annotated Bibliography. Nee to be citated and at least with 7 references with proper APA format Running head: EMERGING THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES Emerging Threats and Countermeasures Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation 1 EMERGING THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES 2 Emerging Threats and Countermeasures Alcaraz, C., & Zeadally, S. (2015). Critical infrastructure protection: Requirements and challenges for the 21st century. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 8, 53-66. The development of any society has necessitated the development of critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure is crucial for the functioning of any society, particularly those that have embraced modern practices. While the infrastructure proves to be a gamechanger in the society, it presents challenges which can overwhelm the government if they are under threat. The authors of this article provide a discussion on some of the threats and vulnerabilities that face modern infrastructure. These vulnerabilities tend to affect modern societies, but much focus of the authors is on industrial systems. Technology has proved to be a game-changer in the majority, and these threats ought to be addressed to prevent cases where operations are halted. The authors also explore protection measures that can be employed to counter these vulnerabilities. The authors argue that the advancement of technology brings forth new vulnerabilities which might threaten the existence and operations of organizations. As technology is improved, threats are also improved to find vulnerabilities which can be exploited. Since critical infrastructure is crucial, the protection strategies should guarantee round the clock performance, scalability, availability, resilience, and safety. The methods used to offer protection should continually be improved since the people behind these threats continually improve the threats to exploit the vulnerabilities that exist in major systems. While protection for critical national infrastructure is important, there are challenges faced on governance and secure designs of network architecture. The article is informative and highlights specific areas of focus in protecting national infrastructure. The article will be a quality addition for the research as it EMERGING THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES 3 explores areas of national infrastructure that should be protected in depth. Besides, it is urgent and has been written by experienced researchers in the field of cybersecurity. Ani, U. P. D., He, H., & Tiwari, A. (2017). Review of cybersecurity issues in industrial critical infrastructure: Manufacturing in perspective. Journal of Cyber Security Technology, 1(1), 32-74. The success of any nation is reliant on how well it leverages on manufacturing to grow the economy. There is a growing demand to improve the manufacturing sector, which has pushed the industrial sector into the adoption of technology. The automation of manufacturing systems has exposed manufacturing companies to cyber threats. These threats if not managed, could affect productivity in terms of profit while making it harder for organizations to prosper. The automation of manufacturing systems through IoTs, computing, and BYOD are faced with direct attacks on industrial control systems. Ani, He, and Tiwari (2017), in their article, explore some of the cybersecurity measures that are effective in protecting and providing resilience to industrial controls systems. The ICS is faced with different nature of threats, and the discussion by these authors provide recommendations that have been tested and proven aimed at protecting critical national infrastructure in manufacturing. The models that are a focus of cybersecurity are argued to be critical while in implementing defense in depth of critical infrastructure. The underlying recommendation for securing these systems is leveraging on personnel, processes, and technology to improve security better. Highly skilled personnel can help in identifying and repulsing threats. The process can better improve systems by making it hard for intruders to take advantage of vulnerabilities. The use of technology, such as big data analytics helps in securing systems and detecting potential attacks. The contents of this article will enrich the research by providing a background of tested approaches to implementing cybersecurity. Besides, the authors EMERGING THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES 4 of the article have a wealth of experience in the field of technology, and their contribution will undoubtedly improve the research. Galinec, D., Možnik, D., & Guberina, B. (2017). Cybersecurity and cyber defense: National level strategic approach. Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications, 58(3), 273-286. There is a close relationship between cybersecurity and information security. In most cases, people tend to misunderstand the meaning of the two terms and other security terms that are used in the field of technology. The misunderstanding of security issues in information technology can be a hindrance to organizations and governments in developing a cybersecurity strategy. In the article, Galinec, Možnik, & Guberina (2017) provide a comparison between cybersecurity and information security. This comparison aims to use similarities and differences to illustrate the importance of understanding these terms before developing a national cybersecurity framework. The protection of critical national infrastructure in technology is made possible with the existence of a national cybersecurity strategy. In the article, the authors use a case study approach with reference to Croatia’s National Cybersecurity Strategy to demonstrate key issues that should be observed in developing a strategy that will counter the threats to national infrastructure. In the case study, the authors make references to the challenges that were faced in developing the national strategy and what other nations or entities should borrow to prevent a similar occurrence. A national strategy should focus on cybersecurity while levering on information security. The national strategy should offer protection to national infrastructure, particularly to external attacks. The review of previous work by previous authors in this article helps in elaborating the issue of cybersecurity and the direction taken in developing a national strategy is useful for protecting national infrastructure. It further helps the government to EMERGING THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES 5 implement an in-depth defense on critical infrastructure. The article will be a great addition to the research as it will provide evidence-based practice through a case study on how to develop a national cybersecurity strategy. Göztepe, K., Kılıc, R., & Kayaalp, A. (2014). Cyber Defense in Depth: Designing Cyber Security Agency Organization for Turkey. Journal of Naval Science and Engineering, 10(1), 1-24. Every country should be prepared to protect its cyberspace. Traditionally, countries have often focused on providing security on land, sea, and air. However, the advancement of technology and the move by people to embrace technology has created many vulnerabilities that expose individuals, organizations, and the country to cyber-attacks. The cyber wars that occur between different countries have created the need to revamp the cybersecurity operations. The cyberspace is now an important part of the territorial boundary which the country should protect. In this article, Göztepe, Kılıc, & Kayaalp, (2014) discusses efficient methods that should be embraced to design cybersecurity agency that is efficient and effective in utilizing in-depth defense approaches to secure a nation’s critical infrastructure. A country needs a cybersecurity agency whose work is to implement policies and procedures that protect the country from external attacks. When a nation’s infrastructure is attacked, service delivery is greatly affected since the citizens and organizations that rely on the infrastructure will be unable to access basic services. The focus of any agency is to protect key infrastructure. Employing methods that provide round the clock security is appropriate in this case. The three authors provided recommendations in reference to Turkey’s approach to developing a cybersecurity agency. As part of their recommendations, the authors suggested the use of eight layered defense-in-depth architecture. The use of this approach will allow the agency to provide efficient communication EMERGING THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES 6 between government agencies and organizations. The recommendation further provides insights on environmental factors that will ensure that the operations of the agency are successful. The recommendations by these authors will improve the research by providing perspectives on how a country’s critical infrastructure can be secured. Maglaras, L. A., Kim, K. H., Janicke, H., Ferrag, M. A., Rallis, S., Fragkou, P., ... & Cruz, T. J. (2018). Cyber security of critical infrastructures. ICT Express, 4(1), 42-45. The most threatened critical infrastructure in a country is those that are used at industrial level. Industries particular those engaging in manufacturing and service provision is at intense risk of cyber threats. Power grids and electricity generation companies leverage IoTs to provide real-time communication and ensure that there is efficiency in power generation, transmission, and distribution. The authors of this article identify Industrial Control Systems (ICS) to be vulnerable to cyberattacks. The research by these authors showed that critical national infrastructures such as the power grid are at much risk of attacks that could impact a country in different magnitudes. The authors provide a suggestion of using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems to improve the security of the national infrastructure. The system can be applied to curb other threats to improve the overall security of the infrastructure. The nature of threat provided with the use of IoT supports the use of SCADA to provide real-time information on intrusions into the systems. The attacks that are directed to the infrastructure are immense. Relying on defense, in-depth approaches to cybersecurity can help repulse all the threats to ICS. In the article, the authors appreciate the need to provide a detailed explanation of cybersecurity threats. It is through such explanations that a cybersecurity agency will identify the right approach of protecting critical infrastructure. The choice of this scholarly article is beneficial for the research as it provides a new perspective of protecting national infrastructure. EMERGING THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES 7 The use of SCADA in cybersecurity does not only offer efficient notification of possible intrusion but also provides suggestions on how to deal with the threats. The article was recently published, therefore addressing recent trends in cybersecurity. Mell, P., Shook, J., & Harang, R. (2016, December). Measuring and Improving the Effectiveness of Defense-in-Depth Postures. In Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Industrial Control System Security Workshop (pp. 15-22). ACM The security of the national infrastructure is crucial in protecting the many interests of a country. There has not been a definite approach to securing this infrastructure with researchers giving suggestions to some methods. A combination of different techniques in cybersecurity can prove to be a game-changer. However, the attacks on critical national infrastructure occur in different ways. The authors of the article sought to measure the effectiveness of defense-in-depth postures in protecting critical infrastructure. In their research, the authors identified defense-indepth to have the best architecture that can be used in cybersecurity. The posture is deep since it is made up of many layers which must be bypassed by intruders to get into the system. The use of this multi-layered architecture provides adequate security to systems that realize the goals of security. In their discussion, the authors noted that cyber-attacks on national infrastructure exploits vulnerabilities inherent in the system. It is through this multi-layered architecture coupled with other security measures that all the threats will be repulsed and agencies responsible for security management are notified to take additional action to the threats. In their arguments, the authors lauded the posture of defense-in-depth as it allows for the measurement of the width and the depth of an attack. These measurements will enable the person in charge of cybersecurity to identify the most appropriate response to the attack. The perspective of defensein-depth in securing ICS will be a quality in addition to the research. The source will provide an EMERGING THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES excellent comparison to other approaches to securing national infrastructure. The authors of this article are seasoned as they have been involved in other scholarly works. Besides, it is recent making it a resourceful material for scholarly research. 8 Purchase answer to see full attachment