PHIL103 Saylor Academy Concept of Virtue Philosophy Questions Answer the following questions:
1. There appears to be a growing happiness gap between men and women. Women today are working more and relaxing less, while men are working less and relaxing more. Forty years ago a typical woman spent 40 minutes more per week than the typical man performing an activity considered unpleasant. Today, with men working less, the gap is 90 minutes and growing.
a. Argument; conclusion: Today … the gap is 90 minutes and growing.
c. Argument; conclusion: Forty years ago … an activity considered unpleasant.
d. Argument; conclusion: There appears to be … between men and women.
2. Lead is toxic, but do you know why? Lead is toxic mainly because it preferentially replaces other metals in biochemical reactions. In so doing it interferes with the proteins that regulate blood pressure (which can cause development delays in children and high blood pressure in adults), heme production (which can lead to anemia), and sperm production. Also, lead displaces calcium in the reactions that transmit electrical impulses in the brain, which diminishes the ability to think and recall information.
a. Argument; conclusion: It interferes with the proteins … and sperm production.
b. Argument; conclusion: Lead is toxic.
d. Argument; conclusion: It preferentially replaces other metals in biochemical reactions.
3. Aristotle focused on clarifying the concept of virtue itself. He argued that it was virtuous to choose the proper amount of emotion and/or action called for in a particular situation and that extremes of emotion and action were vices. In all communities there are some men of practical wisdom who have the capacity to judge wisely. Aristotle argued that they have the capacity to follow the “right rule” whatever the situation.
a. Argument; conclusion: In all communities … capacity to judge wisely.
b. Argument; conclusion: Aristotle focused on clarifying the concept of virtue itself.
c. Argument; conclusion: They have the capacity to follow … the situation.
4. Illegal immigrants pay local sales taxes, and many of them also pay state, local, and federal income tax and Social Security tax. They also purchase items from local merchants, increasing the amount these merchants pay in taxes. In addition, they work for low salaries, which increases the earnings of their employers and the amount of taxes these employers pay. Thus, it is not correct to say that illegal immigrants contribute nothing to the communities in which they live.
a. Argument; conclusion: It is not correct to say … communities in which they live.
b. Argument; conclusion: They work for low salaries … these employers pay.
c. Argument; conclusion: They also purchase items … pay in taxes.
5. Numerous studies have indicated that women of color, black women in particular, are over-arrested, over-indicted, and over-sentenced. African-American women are seven times more likely to be arrested for prostitution than women of other ethnic groups. Black women have received significantly longer sentences for crimes against property and served longer periods in prison. For both murder and drug offenses, Euroamerican women ended up serving one-third less time for the same offenses than black women.
a. Argument; conclusion: African-American women … other ethnic groups.
c. Argument; conclusion: For both murder and drug offenses … black women.
d. Argument; conclusion: Numerous studies have indicated … over-sentenced.
6. It’s even more important these days that your computer be protected by a firewall. There are criminal elements lurking in the shadows of cyberspace who send out probes to detect unprotected PCs. Once a vulnerable computer is found, these criminals install software that assists them in committing identity theft and fencing stolen IDs. They also defraud online advertisers by using these zombie computers to visit pay-per-click ads.
a. Argument; conclusion: Once a vulnerable computer … fencing stolen IDs.
c. Argument; conclusion: They also defraud … to visit pay-per-click ads.
d. Argument; conclusion: It’s even more important … protected by a firewall.
7. The earth is of interest to astronomy for many reasons. Nearly all observations must be made through the atmosphere, and the phenomena of the upper atmosphere and the magnetosphere reflect the state of interplanetary space. The earth is also the most important object of comparison for planetologists.
a. Argument; conclusion: The phenomena … state of interplanetary space.
b. Argument; conclusion: The earth is also … for planetologists.
c. Argument; conclusion: The earth is of interest to astronomy.
8. If the trade in tiger products is banned, tiger reserves are guarded by well equipped staff, communities abutting tiger habitat are given a stake in protecting tigers, and the makers of traditional medicines can be persuaded that tiger parts are not needed, then tiger poaching will be halted, habitat and life sustaining prey will be restored, and the immanent extinction of tigers in the wild will be averted.
b. Argument; conclusion: The trade in tiger products is banned.
c. Argument; conclusion: Tiger poaching will be halted.
d. Argument; conclusion: The makers of traditional medicines … not needed.
9. Humans are biological organisms. To understand our behavior and mental processes, we need to understand their biological underpinnings, starting with the cellular level, the neuron. How we feel, learn, remember, and think all stem from neuronal activity. So, how a neuron works and how neurons communicate are crucial pieces of information in solving the puzzle of human behavior and mental processing.
a. Argument; conclusion: To understand our behavior … the neuron.
b. Argument; conclusion: Humans are biological organisms.
c. Argument; conclusion: How we feel … neuronal activity.
d. Argument; conclusion: How a neuron works … mental processing.
10. Viruses are acellular entities too small to be seen with a light microscope. They are composed of a nucleic acid and a few proteins. Viruses replicate themselves and display other properties of living organisms only when they have invaded living cells. Indeed, some viruses can be crystallized and stored in a container on a shelf for years, but they retain the capacity to invade cells and cause disease.
a. Argument; conclusion: They are composed of a nucleic acid and a few proteins.
c. Argument; conclusion: Viruses are acellular entities … microscope.
d. Argument; conclusion: Viruses replicate themselves … invaded living cells.