UC Irvine Film Music and Social Media Aspects of Popular Culture Paper For your final paper, you should have the following sections included: title page, abstract, introduction, literature review, conclusion, and bibliography. You should have at least ten to fifteen academic sources for your final paper, though you can have more.
Possible lengths for each section should be around:
Introduction and Background: 1-2 pages
Literature Review: 7-10 pages
Conclusion: 1-3 pages
Remember: the lengths of each section can vary and these are just general ideas of where they should fall. Remember also that you must be both at least 10 pages AND 3,000 words in your final draft. If your paper is 10 pages, but under 3,000 words, you will need to add. Your title page, abstract, and bibliography do not count toward the total page and word counts.
-2 editing -1 citations -1 theme You’re definitely on the right track. Make sure that your lit review follows the order that you list the topics in your thesis statement. Some areas were a bit difficult to understand. POPULAR CULTURE
SS 172 FW
Popular culture concerns the trends in life that are continually changing. Therefore, it requires
a close look into the various factors that influence its development and changes so that its
patterns can be well-understood. Both intellectual traditions and the transformation of cultural
products have shaped the sociological experience of people in particular societies. The paper,
therefore, delves into a literature review of the film, music, and social media aspects of
popular culture by creating a premise of its revolution through a background of the topic.
The word “popular” refers to what is loved or appreciated by the majority of people in
society. Therefore, popular culture is the way of living that is adopted and reflected by many
people such that they establish new norms and values. The term encompasses different life
aspects such as music, fashion, sports, fashion, technology, and politics, among others (Deng,
2017). Within the broad categories, other sub-categories represent dominant elements. In
some cases, various societies have different types of popular culture. Nevertheless, the spread
of popular culture globally became possible because of the advent of social media (Boyd,
2015). The world is a global village because online users from different parts of the world
develop commonality in culture in various aspects to form popular culture. The latter unifies
people, and it has a strong influence on society. Areas that popular culture influences can be
political, social or various life aspects. In today’s world, young people are the primary agents
in the spread of popular culture because of their large population (Fraterrigo, 2014). The
advancement of technology leads to the rapid enhancement of popular culture such that
popular trends at a certain point in time are bound to be obsolete in future times. With a close
look at popular culture in film, music, and social media, one can determine and understand
the sociology of this phenomenon, particularly how it grows over time and shapes society
even at the global level.
The emergence of the Industrial Revolution saw the growth in urbanization as young
people moved from rural to urban areas to experience enhanced lifestyles. These lifestyles
were based on a shift from the rural culture that older people, such as their bosses and parents
or grandparents shared. According to Fraterrigo (2014), the 1950s marked the development of
popular culture as a majority of people in societies began to place value and meaning to
various artistic and intellectual phenomena (Milestone, 2008). They preferred a particular
way of life and made it become the norm that defines relevance. Historically, there were
radical variations in the types of art that audiences enjoyed. Milestone (2008) reports that
from the 1950s through 1960s, many young people in the urban areas could afford to
consume popular culture and enjoy leisure activities because of their increased disposable
income. Themes such as rebellion against authority, freedom, and young love were some of
the significant themes in music that was appreciated by the majority of the young people in
American society. For example, popular music at the time was Rock and Roll, which turned
into popular culture. Popular entertainment was also evident in television as a technological
advancement (Deng, 2017). The myriads of young people in this era were the baby boomers
who were born after World War II. They began the awakening of generational consciousness
through music, television, and film as a means of expression and familiarity because they all
had the same sentiments regarding societal norms.
Popular culture involves various cultural products in society. They include literature,
art, film, television, music, social media, dance, and fashion, among other emergent ones.
The idea of popular culture, therefore, manifests when any of the above aspects have mass
appeal. Grindstaff (2008) delves into a sociological approach in his attempt to explain
popular culture. Therefore, in the article, “Culture and popular culture: A case for sociology,”
the author illustrates various definitions and scenarios related to the concept in a bid to
develop clarity for further studies. Grindstaff (2008) shows how the sociology of popular
culture has been shaped by intellectual traditions such as studies by sociologists and other
scholars. The article establishes the idea of popularity as one that is linked to cultural
sociology as apparent in various social life platforms. Consequently, there is a significant
increase in the interdependence between such platforms and popular culture which emerges
from the advancement of new media. The author explores the terrain of new media and
popular culture, including the various debates around it. From the article, the information
regarding the definition and meaning of popular culture according to what instigates it. Thus,
Grindstaff (2008) examines different approaches and analyzing them to determine the best
explanation about popular culture. Also, the presentation of interdisciplinary approaches
allows one to think critically and understand the significance of popular culture in different
aspects. The author attempts to confront the biases that are bound to appear when explaining
popular culture from one perspective. The study of popular culture and new media as well as
how they are related in the digital world requires both the methodological and theoretical
tools contained in cultural sociology. During the Industrial Revolution, there were conflicts
between modern and traditional forces and they created the need to develop an area of study
that could help in determining the differences and the factors influencing the changes.
Cultural sociology enables one to understand the emerging popular institutions and
practices, both locally and globally. As the numbers of people in the working-class increased
in the late 1950s and 1960s because of increased career options, many of them could access
materials in the popular cultural industries. Milestone (2008) reports that the class system
fragmentation also increased with the rapid cultural and social changes in Manchester. From
a cultural sociology perspective, this situation was a reflection of the occurrences in different
societies as perceptions regarding the working-class culture emerged. The popular culture of
Manchester city, therefore, grew through popular music. Creativity took over, and the city
became a pop-cultural monument. Milestone (2008) argues that the sociology of popular
culture in the context of Manchester city is evident in how the early pop cultural
representations influenced the images, ideas, and formulas used by the people in the city
today. The meanings were made historically. The author also suggests that the emerging
cultural products in the city do not depict diversity in the context of race and ethnicity.
Matusitz & Payano (2012) introduce a different approach to popular culture as they
examine it in the context of globalization. It is apparent that Bollywood films influence the
Western film industry according to the pieces of evidence in the article, “Globalization of
popular culture: from Hollywood to Bollywood.” Therefore, the reader develops an
understanding of how Hollywood and Bollywood influence each other and which party has
the strongest influence according to popularity. In essence, the entertainment continues tobe
globalized as stakeholders determine which film products are more appealing to the broader
global market for the sake of commercialization. Therefore, the authors present the case of
Bollywood as an influential film industry that attracts non-Indian cultures because of its
unique musical norms and cinematographic practices. The non-hegemony instigates the
spread of popular culture dramatically. Matusitz & Payano (2012) highlight the significance
of economic and cultural changes in the film industry from a global perspective. Therefore, it
is easy to determine the loopholes in the findings and to understand the direction to take when
delving into further research. Moreover, the aspect of globalization is a broad topic that can
also help one to determine ideas that are related to popular culture in the global perspective
(Koike, 2002). A film is a significant promoter of popular culture because people learn about
different cultures and establish a popular culture through similar opinions on entertainment.
Hollywood adopted an industrial production mode in the wake of Western cinema,
and it became quite successful. Through the globalization of popular culture, Bollywood
adopted some aspects and customized them into a unique system. However, the diversity of
culture has also influenced film production in Hollywood as its paradigm has also been
advanced to reflect various cultures, such as the Asian one (Koike, 2002). The popularity of
Asian films introduced as a particular aspect that Hollywood needed to incorporate in the
movies to tap into the global market according to the scale of popularity. Nonetheless, the
globalization of film is a complex process. The institutionalization of film through
production, distribution and viewership became popular in various avenues of film in the
world (Matusitz & Payano, 2012). While Hollywood is based on a global representation of
life and other aspects, Bollywood is grounded on the national culture of Indians. According to
Matusitz & Payano (2012), countries focus on local content as a response to globalization so
that they can secure local jobs. Still, the main aim is to spread their cultures because of the
realization that globalization can earn them recognition. Therefore, as their uniqueness is
understood by different people from other parts of the world, creatives in Bollywood allow
different viewers to establish a popular culture.
Askin & Mauskapf (2017) investigate what it takes for music artists to be successful
in their craft amidst the high competition in the industry. The authors, therefore, attempt to
determine why some artists are more successful than others in the context of particular
cultural products. They realize that the widespread success of such products primarily
depends on their position in feature space. For example, the position of a song in a
countdown chart is influenced by how well the majority of people are familiar with it
according to the alignment of features with popular culture. The authors also point out that
the idea of popular media platforms such as social media and the Billboard’s Hot 100 charts
reinforces the aspect of popularity (Askin & Mauskapf, 2017). Nevertheless, the artist must
have institutional support, genre affiliation, culture familiarity so that he or enhances his or
her chances for music success. Another critical point in the article is that the lack of
uniqueness and diversity in a song lowers its chances to make it to the top music charts.
Askin & Mauskapf (2017) explore the significance of popular culture in the music industry
with logical reasons for the optimal difference in songs. The information in the article helps
one to how musicians can tap into new perspectives in the cultural markets so that they can
thrive and gain longevity. A comprehensive analysis of consumer behavior in the context of
popularity that is, what people term as entertaining within a certain period reflects the power
of music in popular culture.
In essence, today’s entertainment industry, particularly music, is intertwined with the
Internet and its significance in ensuring the artist’s success. In their article “The online place
of popular music: Exploring the impact of geography and social media on pop artists’
mainstream media attention,” Verboord & Noord (2016) point out how there has been limited
research in the potential of the Internet to enhance connectivity and equality, as well as an
artist’s popularity. Music artists range from amateurs and professionals and also those who
get maximum recognition to those who receive less or no recognition. This inequality is a
fundamental area to scrutinize because it also determines the wave of popular culture at a
particular time (Verboord & Noord, 2016). The mainstream media tends to be more attentive
to artists from central cities as compared to those who reside in peripheral cities. Therefore,
popular culture in music can only be influenced by artists with maximum attention from the
mainstream media. Listeners or viewers are bound to have a high affinity for these types of
music because they are exposed to the sounds most times. In their study, Verboord & Noord
(2016) show the need for reducing the inequalities of artists’ popularity as propagated by the
mainstream media and they suggest the use of the Internet for each artist’s self-promotion.
Even though Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, and Instagram among other social media
platforms can compensate for a fraction of inequality, there is still a need to determine how
the mainstream media can equalize the propagation of popularity.
Tuzel & Hobbs (2017) are very deliberate in their research report because they focus
on how popular culture and social media work together to enhance learning. Thus, the article,
“The use of social media and popular culture to advance cross-cultural understanding”
presents a significant advantage of popular culture because social media has also become
popular as people are more inclined to digital technologies in the modern world. Therefore,
the authors argue that it is crucial to incorporate the aspects of both social media and popular
culture in the curriculum so that students can enjoy learning and become more intelligent.
Also, from the article, the concept is a relief for educators because they can achieve their
teaching objectives conveniently too. Tuzel & Hobbs (2017) highlight how 7th-grade
students developed cultural and academic understanding by interacting with each other
online. The collaboration of the Turkish and American educators in this concept enabled the
process to be effective. The article introduces a favorable outlook of both social media and
popular culture. It is crucial to understand how educators can maximize on such an advantage
to achieve the best teaching outcomes (Boyd, 2015). Knowledge in this area can also help in
determining the best approach for further research so that the analysis can be comprehensive
when balancing the pros and cons of popular culture in learning.
Baluev & Kaminchenko (2015) explore the effect of modern social media
technologies on mass culture in the article “The reflection of social media technologies and
popular culture features in Russian academic studies.” The authors attempt to identify the
problem in mass culture through concepts from Russian scientific literature (Baluev &
Kaminchenko, 2015). From their study, the authors found out that most Russian authors
appeal to the consciousness through qualitative methods and a few through quantitative ones.
Therefore, although mass media is the most influential factor of mass or popular culture,
“new” media is also emerging in this context. The authors use qualitative data analysis to
examine the Russian academic discourse. The definition of Russian scholars regarding mass
culture is more inclined to the function of mass media. Still, in some aspects, some authors
recognize the influence of the “new media,” which refers to the platforms on the Internet
(Baluev & Kaminchenko, 2015). More content that is generated on social media could
contribute to popular culture.
Concisely, popular culture is a significant topic because it extends to different aspects
and studying it in specific areas such as film, social media and music allows one to
understand how people are socialized towards trends. The sociological approaches and the
analysis of topics in music, film, and social media provides a clear perspective of how
popularity is achieved. Most importantly, social media or the “new media” seems to change
how popular culture spreads because initially, the trend was based on the activities of the
mainstream media. Nowadays, artists or organizations can use their social media accounts to
promote themselves and develop uniqueness in attracting the masses who usually log into the
Internet. Culture is a fundamental part of people’s interaction processes because it gives them
a sense of belonging. Thus, in the context of popular culture, people in different parts of the
world can find a commonality in values, feelings, and attitudes through the new trends of
music, film, and social media.
Globalization also goes hand in hand with popularity and technological advancement
because artists can increase their market share. The impact of pop culture on various societies
can be well-determined with in-depth knowledge about popular culture. Another interesting
aspect in popular culture in film, social media, and music is that the trends change after a
period. Therefore, one needs to be abreast with the changes so that they can be part of the
transition and benefit from it well enough. Popular culture is also a significant area for
businesses to expand their market share as they capitalize on the trends. The evolution of
culture is fascinating, mainly when the youth contribute massively to it to redefine popular
Askin, N., & Mauskapf, M. (2017). What makes popular culture popular? Product features
and optimal differentiation in music. American Sociological Review, 82(5), 910-944.
Baluev, D. G., & Kaminchenko, D. I. (2015). The reflection of social media technologies and
popular culture features in Russian academic studies. Asian Social Science, 11(9),
Boyd, D. (2015). Social media: A phenomenon to be analyzed. Social Media+ Society, 1(1),
Deng, P. (2017). The evolution of concept of popular culture and its significance. Theory and
Practice in Language Studies, 7(5), 389-394.
Fraterrigo, E. (2014). Darryl Jones, Elizabeth McCarthy, and Bernice M. Murphy (eds.), It
Came from the 1950s! Popular Culture, Popular Anxieties (Basingstoke: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2011,£ 58.00). Pp. 233. isbn 978 0 2302 7221 7. Journal of American
Studies, 48(2), 678-680.
Grindstaff, L. (2008). Culture and popular culture: A case for sociology. The ANNALS of the
American Academy of Political and Social Science, 619(1), 206-222.
Koike, M. (2002). Bollywood versus Hollywood in the Globalization of Media: A History of
Indian Films in Indonesia. St. Andrew’s University Bulletin of The Research
Institute, 28(1), 23-34.
Matusitz, J., & Payano, P. (2012). Globalization of popular culture: from Hollywood to
Bollywood. South Asia Research, 32(2), 123-138.
Milestone, K. (2008). Urban myths: Popular culture, the city and identity. Sociology
Compass, 2(4), 1165-1178.
Tuzel, S., & Hobbs, R. (2017). The use of social media and popular culture to advance crosscultural understanding. Comunicar, 25(51), 63-72.
Verboord, M., & Noord, S. V. (2016). The online place of popular music: Exploring the
impact of geography and social media on pop artists’ mainstream media
attention. Popular Communication, 14(2), 59-72.
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